A Survey Of Causes Of Carcass And Organ Condemnations Of Livestock Slaughtered In Three Abattoirs In South Sudan
Mabior, M D Y
MetadataShow full item record
A survey was conducted in three abattoirs in South Sudan. The study was designed to provide epidemiological and economic data that can be used for surveillance purposes and importantly for disease control programmes in both animals and humans. The study objectives were: 1) to estimate the prevalence of diseases and conditions in livestock carcasses and organs condemned in abattoirs in South Sudan; 2) to establish the geographical distribution of the diseases and conditions associated with livestock carcass and organ condemnations in abattoirs in South Sudan; and 3) To estimate the financial losses associated with livestock carcass and organ condemnations in South Sudan. The study was conducted in three major abattoirs in three States of South Sudan, namely, Central Equatoria State (Juba Main abattoir), Upper Nile State (Hai Saha abattoir) and Western Bahr el Ghazal State (Lokoloko abattoir). The survey was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, retrospective data were collected from the meat inspection records kept at the three abattoirs during the period 2009-2011. In the second phase, detailed data were collected prospectively for a period of four months in the three abattoirs from January 2012 to April 2012. The quantity of organs and carcasses condemned was estimated in kilograms for each livestock species. The prevailing market prices of the organs and carcasses at the time of survey were obtained from the butchers in the three towns of Juba, Malakal and Wau. Carcass condemnations rates in the three species were low (0% - 0.5%) compared to organs. Reasons for the few carcasses condemned in phases of the study included Cysticercus bovis, suspected tuberculosis, jaundice, septicaemia and abnormal odour. In Approximately a half (52%) of the 1,794 cattle organs condemned at Juba Main abattoir during the period 2009-2011 were due to fascioliasis. Fascioliasis and contagious caprine pleuropneumonia contributed to 37% and 20% of goat organs condemned during the same period and to 37% and 32% of sheep organs condemned, respectively. At Hai Saha abattoir, the leading causes of cattle organ condemnations were fascioliasis and pneumonia contributing to 46% and 22% of the condemnations, respectively. At this abattoir, cases of bovine cysticercosis were documented and accounted for 8%. The three major causes of condemnations in goats at Hai Saha abattoir were necrotic lesions in the livers (33%), contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (26%) and fascioliasis (26%), while in sheep the leading cause of condemnations was liver necrosis (29%). Of the three survey abattoirs, the Lokoloko abattoir in Wau County had the largest numbers of livestock slaughtered (110,487 animals). At this abattoir suspected cases of bovine tuberculosis at a prevalence of 8.2% contributed to approximately a quarter (24%) of the total cattle organs condemned. Fascioliasis was the commonest cause of condemnations of goat and sheep livers constituting 53% and 57% of the condemnations, respectively, at this abattoir. In the four-month prospective abattoir data collection, fascioliasis was the leading cause of cattle liver condemnations at prevalence of 3.9% at Juba Main abattoir. Condemnations of the liver in cattle accounted for (71%) of all total condemnations of cattle carcasses and organs carried out at this abattoir. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in goats and fascioliasis in sheep were also significant causes of condemnations in the two species at a prevalence of 2.6% and 2.8%, respectively. At the Hai Saha abattoir, fascioliasis occurred at high prevalence proportions in cattle (4.3%), goats (4.1%) and in sheep (4.0%). Pneumonia and suspected cases of tuberculosis in cattle occurred at relatively high prevalence of 11.4% and 10.5% at the Lokoloko abattoir. At this abattoir, the prevalence of causes of goats and sheep organ condemnations were relatively low with the highest prevalence recorded for hydatidosis (1.8%) and fascioliasis (1.1%) in sheep, and fascioliasis (0.8%) and hydatidosis (0.7%) in goats. The estimated monetary loss incurred in the four-month period (January- April, 2012) due to carcass and organ condemnations converted to an annual loss of South Sudanese Pound 620,290.2 (US $ 206,763.4). The vast proportion (51.8%) of this loss was due to condemnations of livers with fascioliasis. In conclusion, this survey provided vital epidemiologic and economic data that can be useful for the planning and implementation of sound disease control programmes. Such diseases include the major ruminant plagues (e.g. CBPP and CCPP), liver flukes, and the diseases of public health importance (e.g. bovine tuberculosis, cysticercosis and hydatidosis).