Challenges facing implementation of gender mainstreaming in selected government ministries in Nairobi county, Kenya
The purpose of this study was to establish the challenges facing the implementation of gender mainstreaming in selected government ministries. The study was carried out in Nairobi County and had the following objectives: to assess the level of staff awareness on the implementation of gender mainstreaming in selected government ministries, to examine the influence of resource mobilization on the implementation of gender mainstreaming in selected government ministries, to establish the influence of patriarchy systems on the implementation of gender mainstreaming in selected government ministries, to determine the influence of policy functionality on the implementation of gender mainstreaming in selected government ministries. The target population of this study included employees and department heads in the Ministry of Planning and Devolution and the Ministry of Labour, Social Security and Services. The two ministries had a total population of 1100. A descriptive research design was adopted. Simple random sampling, purposive sampling and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 92 respondents. The sample size was arrived at using the formula recommended by Kothari (2003). The study made use of closed ended questionnaires and interview schedule as instruments of data collection. Questionnaires collected data from employees while interview schedule collected data from department heads. Reliability was established through the split-half method. A pilot study was conducted in the Ministry of Land, Housing and Urban Development among 10 samples. Data was analyzed qualitatively through content analysis. Quantitative data was first coded then analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 17.0. After interpretation, the findings were presented in tables using frequencies and percentages. The study found out that the government did very little to create awareness among its employees on gender issues. There were also gaps in terms of resource mobilization especially the allocation of human resources. It was further established that male dominance is still evident in the ministries. Furthermore the study revealed that despite the existence of policies, their functionality was still very low in terms of gender mainstreaming. The study therefore concluded that gender mainstreaming still faces major challenges and action was needed. Major recommendations were that; the government should equip employees with knowledge and skills on gender mainstreaming, community sensitization should be undertaken to change discriminatory cultural practices, adequate financial and human resources should be allocated to gender mainstreaming, the government together with other institutions should claim ownership of the gender mainstreaming process to ensure sustainable resource mobilization and those in the policy and budgetary chain should be educated to ensure gender sensitivity. Areas for further research work included a study on; factors influencing policy formulation in gender mainstreaming, factors contributing to female marginalization in projects, the impact of human resource allocation on gender mainstreaming. This would highlight the issues underlying the failure of gender mainstreaming and inform decision makers on the necessary action that is needed.