Factors influencing implementation of reforms in the Water sector in Mombasa County, Kenya
Cherop, Emmanuel K
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Water sector reform refers to the whole of a country's policies, planning, implementation, and supporting activities to develop and manage its water resources and deliver water services to all users (Kisirna, 2008). Water Sector Reforms objectives which include, catchments degradation, drying up of rivers, receding of lake levels, heavy siltation in our dams and pans meant for water supplies, problem of water qualities, flood damages to our infrastructure such as water intakes, centralized decision making ,water scarcity ,poor infrastructure and loss of water to over 40% (NRW) is still a big problem and therefore, the principle objectives of the water sector reforms have not been felt by customers positively, as they have realized positive changes in other reforms in Kenya such as Education, Kenya Power (Rural Electrification) Judicial System ,Civil service, and Road Authority. The essence of this study sought to look at the factors influencing implementation of water reforms in the water sector. The independent variables considered in this study were infrastructure in the water sector, institutional structure, technology, and governance various indicators of each variable was specified. The water infrastructure still remains handicapped with some systems that were installed well before independence still in place without undergoing rehabilitation. Institutions systems and procedures are not strong enough to ensure effectiveness and efficiency in the water sector especially in the implementation of water sector reforms. Poor terms of service and inadequate management capacity negatively impact on the level of service delivery. Institutions have not built up an integrated information management system which could have influence the water sector reforms positively in terms of service delivery. There are various forms of corruption in water sector which influences the success of implementation of water sector reforms, these includes withholding or denying or misinforming customers The study applied both quantitative and qualitative techniques to collect data an interview schedule was designed to guide the interview process. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for data analysis using the statistical package for social scientists. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. The water infrastructure still remains handicapped with some systems that were installed well before independence still in place without undergoing rehabilitation. The dilapidated and old infrastructure operates far below their design capacity. In this regard, the physical infrastructure has slowed the process of implementation of reforms, poor infrastructure, delayed and worsens the successful implementation of water sector reforms. The implementation of water sector reforms has been influenced by the factor of institutional structures that the process has been slowed down because of confusion within the institutions on the roles and responsibilities. The institutions should rehabilitate old infrastructure and install modem equipment and systems and Create individual responsibility and customer orientation on the part of employees through transformation of internal culture. Each institution is recommended to have performance monitoring and evaluation sections for the purpose of sector control mechanism. Further research can be done on impacts of water sector reforms to the Kenyan economy.