Poisons And Toxicants Of Birds Of Prey And Poultry Poultry
Mbaria, James M
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Birds of prey are birds that hunt for food primarily via flight, using their keen senses, especially vision. They primarily hunt vertebrates, including other birds and their talons and beaks are large, powerful and adapted for tearing flesh. They are called "raptor" due to their ability to seize or take by force. Because of their predatory lifestyle, often at the top of the food chain, the birds of prey face distinct conservation concerns. Among the major issues is exposure to poisonous xenobiotics (substances that are foreign to living systems). Ecotoxicology is the study of the adverse effects of toxicants on organisms that compose ecosystems including such as the birds of prey. Environmental persistence, propensity to accumulate in living things and high toxicity the three insidious characteristics shared by chemicals pose major environmental hazards. Naturally occurring toxicants are from geothermal sources and heavy metals such leached from minerals. Industrial and agricultural endeavors are associated with the extensive use of a wide array of chemicals. Pesticides and other agricultural chemicals have revolutionized farm and forest productivity and their potential adverse effects are often viewed as insignificant relative to the benefits. Environmental toxicology is divided into environmental health toxicology and ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology focuses on the effects of environmental contaminants on ecosystems and constituents thereof including raptors, fish and other wildlife.