An overview of aquaculture in eastern Africa
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Egypt, Kenya and Malawi, have the earliest recorded history of fish farming in eastern Africa, dating back to the beginning of the century. Between 1940 and 1960 aquaculture started in Rwanda, Uganda Zambia, Zimbabwe and Tanzania in that order. Overall, Egypt is the leader in aquaculture development in the region with an estimated annual production of 24 000t (1982), followed by Zambia, 1680t (1967), then Kenya, 1085t (1985). The main aquaculture systems in practice are: monoculture, polyculture, using tilapia as the main species, mono or polyculture of tilapia with animal husbandry and rice-cum-fish culture. Aquaculture research and training are carried out in Universities, research institutions and Government Fisheries Training colleges. The major common constraints to aquaculture development are biological, infrastructural and economic.