Land Use Change And Its Impact On Livelihoods: A Case Study Of Kalokol Division, Turkana County, Kenya
Land use in Turkana County has been punctuated by radical disruptions, caused by the containment policy during and after the colonial period and recurrent droughts coupled with intertribal conflicts during the post-Independence period. This study was undertaken to determine the land use change that has occurred and its impact on livelihoods in Kalokol division, in Turkana County. The study aims were to determine the type of land use change, examine impacts of land use change on community livelihoods, assess the resultant effect of land use change on gender roles, determine community coping strategies of land use change and recommend measures and strategies to minimize negative impacts of land use change on Kalokol community livelihoods. The study adopted a survey design and purposively selected two of the three locations in Kalokol division which has a total population of 42,172. One sampled location is situated on the Lake shore while the second one is about three kilometres away from the lake shore for comparison. The data collection methods adopted by the researcher were documents review, face to face interviews, focus group discussions, observations and photography. The research instruments used included a semi-structured questionnaire, an institutional and focus group discussion guide, an observation form and a camera. Respondents from 90 households and 5 key informants were interviewed. Two focus group discussions one for men and another for women were held. The findings show that the main land use changes are: declining nomadic pastoralism and increasing permanent human settlement, fishery and business enterprises. They depict a strong positive correlation (r= 0.989) between land use change and decline in the major sources of livelihoods in Kalokol. The findings further indicate a significant change in both men and women’s roles in Kalokol as a result of land use change. Nomadic-pastoralism and basket/mat weaving are Key community coping strategies employed for survival. Research recommends formulation of comprehensive policies and plans by the government in conjunction with development agencies to promote, protect and enhance pastoralism as a land use and a source of livelihoods. In addition, the pastoral community needs to embrace diversification of livelihoods and gender roles to enhance food security in Kalokol division.