Factors influencing the Sustainability Of Hiv/aids Control Strategies by Non-governmental organizations in Kenya: A case of Kibera Slums, Laini Saba ward in Nairobi County
The HIV/AIDS scourge continues to take its toll all over the world. Africa in particular remains the global epicenter for the disease accounting for the high cases of HIV reported around the world. In Kenya, the latest AIDS Indicator Survey preliminary report of 2012 indicates HIV prevalence has decreased over the last years. However, from the survey conducted, 53% of survey participants found to be infected were not aware of their HIV infection. In particular, slums are characterized by scarce resources, making HIV prevention efforts extremely challenging. Kibera, the research area, is a slum where the estimated HIV prevalence rate is 10-25%. Non-Governmental Organizations have continued to compliment the Government’s efforts in the fight against HIV and AIDS. Despite the control strategies in place, the interventions used in the fight against HIV/AIDS seem to have a challenge of sustainability in order for the country to meet its objective of ‘total war’ against HIV/AIDS. The purpose of the study was to find out how community behavior, attitude, NGOs own funding and monitoring and evaluation practices influence the sustainability of HIV/AIDS control strategies. A descriptive survey research design was adopted on a sample of 323 members of the community which was arrived at using Krejcie and Morgan’s sample size estimation table and was selected through simple random sampling from a target population of 2000 persons reached by the NGOs in Laini Saba Ward. In addition, 19 NGOs serving in Laini Saba were selected for triangulation. Data collection was done by the use of questionnaires and interview schedules and the data analyzed by the aid of Statistical Package of Social Scientists Program (SPSS). Percentages and frequency counts were the statistical measures used to draw inference from the responses of the respondents. A return rate of 86.7% was realized from the targeted 323 sample size. Out of the 323 questionnaires distributed to the targeted sample 280 questionnaires were returned. According to the findings on the gender of the respondents, majority 188 respondents were female representing (67.1%) while the remaining 92 respondents were male representing (32.9%). On distribution of respondents by age, majority of the respondents (116) were of the age category of 26-35 years representing (41.4%). Furthermore, on marital status, majority of the respondents (157) were married representing (56.1%). On the highest education level attained, majority of the respondents (176) had attained secondary education representing 62.9%. On community’s attitude on sustainability of HIV/AIDS control strategies, majority of the respondents 39% had moderate accepting attitudes, 33% had positive attitude while 28% had negative attitude. On influence of behavior, 51% stated behaviour influences sustainability of the strategies. For NGO funding, majority (58%) disagreed that NGO’s received adequate funding while 24 (9%) strongly disagreed. On the influence of monitoring and evaluation majority 146 (52.2%) stated they did not fully participate in the process. In addition, the study found that community members’ attitude on sustainability of HIV/AIDS control strategies were generally positive despite a few community members stating there was stigmatization for those who sought the services. Community behavior was depicted to influence the sustainability as the study found that the NGOs education on condom use, remaining faithful and undertaking testing counselling and testing were key to ensuring new infections were minimized. Funding was noted to play an important role. However, based on the findings, the NGOs were not adequately funded. This affected their ability to conduct effective monitoring and evaluation activities. The study recommends NGOs increased advocacy on the strategies, increased funding base, and monitoring and evaluation activities to enhance the sustainability of the HIV/AIDS strategies they implement.