Factors influencing information communication technology integration in curriculum implementation in secondary schools: a case of Gilgil sub-county, Nakuru county - Kenya
The principal objective of the existing education policy on ICT is imbedded in three documents namely; e-Government Strategy, National ICT Policy and Sessional Paper No. 1 of 2005, a Policy Framework for Education, Training and Research to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. According to policy makers, information and communication technology (ICT) integration takes place when teachers know how to incorporate and use ICT to teach in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing information communication technology integration in curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Gilgil Sub-County, Kenya. The study sought to determine the influence of availability of ICT infrastructure, teachers’ use of ICT infrastructure, teachers’ knowledge of ICT and teachers’ attitudes towards ICT on ICT integration. The study employed the descriptive research design. The target populations for the study comprised 697 teachers and 49 school principals (total = 756) from the 49 secondary schools in Gilgil Sub-County. A sample size of 254 at a confidence level of 95% and margin of error 5.0%, made up of 25 principals and 229 teaching staff was used. Primary data was collected using the teacher’s questionnaire and an interview guide for school principals. Expert opinion by the supervisor was sought for the research instruments to ensure their content validity and reliability tested after the instruments had been pilot-tested on a sample of 20 teachers from 4 schools. The collected data was analyzed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21. Descriptive statistics involving percentages and mean scores were generated to determine varying degrees of responseconcentration and regression and correlation analyses conducted to establish whether the independent variables in the study influenced the dependent variable. The study established that most of the schools had computers. The types of computers available in the schools were mainly desktop computers. All the computer-related hardware was either unavailable or largely inadequate in the schools. A significant positive relationship existed between availability of ICT infrastructure and ICT integration in curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Gilgil Sub-County (r=0.68, p<0.05). On teachers’ use of ICT, it was established that on average, teachers used computer software more often than they used the hardware. There was a significant positive relationship between teachers’ use of ICT hardware infrastructure and ICT integration in curriculum implementation (r=0.68; p<0.05) and teachers’ use of ICT software infrastructure and ICT integration in curriculum implementation (r=0.66; p<0.05). Also, there was a significant positive relationship between teachers’ knowledge of ICT and ICT integration in curriculum implementation (r=0.49; p<0.05) and a significant, positive correlation between teachers’ attitudes towards ICT and ICT integration in curriculum implementation (r=0.18; p<0.05). There is therefore need for all the stakeholders in the education sector to join hands in supporting the schools to acquire the requisite ICT infrastructure if the ICT in education Policy (2006) is to be effectively implemented in schools. The study further recommends that teachers be provided with technical assistance because this assistance may provide them with up-to date equipment in the new world of technology. Teachers should also be given sufficient training on ICT use and integration into teaching and learning processes.