Influence of repetition on academic performance of pupils: a case of primary schools in turbo division, Uasin-Gishu county, Kenya
Academic performance is the outcome of education. It is the extent to which a pupil, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic performance is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment tests but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are the most important procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts. This study sought to investigate the influence of repetition on academic performance of pupils in primary schools within Turbo division, Uasin Gishu County. The specific objectives of the study sought to: investigate the influence of self esteem on academic performance of pupils; investigate the influence of stigmatization on academic performance of pupils; examine the relationship between class size and academic performance of pupils; and to assess how time wastage influences the academic performance of pupils. The findings of the study will be significant to the management of the schools in that they will be able to gain insight on other possible ways of implementing other strategies for academic performance apart from using repetition as a way of enhancing academic performance. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The target population consisted of 59 head teachers and 472 teachers. The study employed proportionate stratified random sampling technique to sample the schools that participated in the study. Proportionate stratified random Sampling technique was used to select the teachers from public primary schools in the division. The researcher used the questionnaire, interview schedule and document analysis to collect the data for research. Data was tabulated and statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequencies and means. Data was presented in frequency and percentages tables. Multiple regression analysis technique was used to determine the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship (p = 0.00) between low self esteem and academic performance. The findings also indicated a significant relationship (p = 0.000) between stigma and academic performance. The results however indicated that there was no significant relationship (p=0.440) between class size and academic performance. The results also indicated that there was no significant relationship (p = 0.649) between age and academic performance. The researcher concluded that: A pupil with low self-esteem may view his/herself as being unskilled or incapable of completing tasks. Hence, self esteem brings about confidence to pursue academic achievement; stigmatized pupils, although initially proud of their accomplishments, soon come to define themselves as different and their backgrounds a burden. They subsequently began to experience a crisis in competency; large class sizes do not allow individual pupils to get attention from teachers which invariably lead to low reading scores, frustration and poor academic performance; lastly, age does not have significant influence on academic achievement of pupils. However, longer school time tables demotivate pupils thereby impacting negatively on their enthusiasm to learn.