Energy status in South Sudan
South Sudan has a problem for lack of equitable and reliable energy source for power supply. The major source of electricity in South Sudan is thermal using diesel-fired generators. 83% of South Sudan is rural and uses, Kerosene, charcoal and fire wood. Another source of energy that is widely use in South Sudan cities are battery and solar arrays units for lighting and entertainment yet the country has enough water resources to generate long term electricity. Utilization of sustainable low-carbon energy scenarios for the new century emphasize the need to tap the yet to be utilized potential of hydro-energy resources in South Sudan. In 2012, the government initiated construction of Fula rapids hydro dam of 42MW in response to energy crisis in the country but the capacity is not enough to match the demand of 44MW in Juba. The installed capacity in Juba is 17MW among which some of the units currently require major overhaul. In this research project, energy status in South Sudan has been determined to help the government in selecting priorities in development of energy sector as well as a datum for a venture in renewable energy fields. The objective of this study is to determine the energy status of South Sudan, determine potential from hydro, compare hydro power energy with other sources of energy and propose ways forward for the country. South Sudan is an agricultural region with fertile land, plenty of water resources, livestock, forestry resources, and agricultural resources. Application of new and renewable sources of energy available shall be the viable weapon to accelerate exploitation of these resources. Energy status in South Sudan was determined by quantifying the amount of energy sources that are in use and those to be utilized later in the country. The data of energy mix was obtained through site survey and by dividing juba city into three sections based on payams. This data covered a period of two weeks from 1st October to 15th October 2013 with sampling time of eight hours a day. The data was transferred manually from hard copies to excel sheet and was plotted on pie charts in terms of percentages as shown on figure 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4 respectively. The results showed that thermal energy dominates the consumption in Juba up to 36% of energy sources followed by solar 27% on figure 4.4 while other major sources like hydro, wind, geothermal and nuclear are zero. In addition to energy mix analysis, potential was determined from Hydro and this was done by measuring the river monthly discharge from four hydro potential sites by using current meter. This meter clearly records the velocity of the water and measures the area by using depth and width of a cross-section of a river. This data was retrieved from meter data storage unit (DSU) to excel software using export wizard where the calculations of discharge were done and the results were tabulated on table 4.10. These results were plotted as rating curves against the water elevation. Elevation above sea level (FSL) data was sourced from Dam Implementing Unit (DIU) of Sudan. This data was measured by using digital elevation model (Topographical mapping) through aerial photography and transferred from ArcGIS map to excel as presented on table 4.11 for calculation of hydro potential in these rivers. The results found showed that, South Sudan has a large hydro potential to be exploited. Lastly, comparison between hydro electric power and other sources of energy was summarized and the ways forwards were suggested.