School-based factors affecting Girl-child participation in education in public primary schools in Tigania central Division Meru county, Kenya
The purpose of this research study was to investigate school based factors which affect girl child participation in education in public primary schools in Tigania Central Division, Meru County. The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of learning materials on girl child participation in education, influence of female teacher on girl child participation in education, effect of physical facilities on girl child participation in education and to examine the extent to which peer pressure affects girl child participation in education. The study reviewed literature review based on the four objectives. The study was guided by social learning theory. The study used descriptive survey. The target population was 32 public primary schools with 32 head teachers 256 teachers and 981 class eight pupils. Random sampling was used to sample 76 teachers 98 pupils 19 head teachers. The total sample size was 193 respondents. Questionnaires for head teachers, teachers and pupils were used in data collection. Pilot study was carried out to validate the instruments. The researcher also consulted supervisors from the Department of Educational Administration and Planning to make the instrument more valid. Reliability of the instrument was tested and correlation coefficient of 0.88 for the head teachers, 0.89 for teachers and 0.88 for the pupils was obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. The study established that lack of textbooks, shortage of female teachers, lack of guidance and counseling led girls to drop from primary school. Inadequate sanitation, toilets, classrooms and desks also affect girl child participation in education. Negative peer pressure also negatively influences girls participation in primary education. In the view of the conclusion the study recommends that the government should avail sufficient resources for buying more textbooks and for hiring and training more teachers especially female teachers. Schools should provide more toilets, classrooms, desks and good sanitation. Head teachers should ensure that pupils are protected from negative peer pressure.