Factors influencing pupils involvement in private tuition: a case study of Oshwal International Mombasa, Kenya
Private tuition is the supplementary tutoring that is offered outside the mainstream education system. The purpose of the study was to establish the factors that influence pupils’ involvement in private tuition in Oshwal International in Mombasa County. The study was guided by four research objectives which sought to: determine how pupils performance influence private tuition, establish how pupils entry behavior influence private tuition, assess how parental level of income influences private tuition and determine the perception of stakeholders (students, teachers and parents) on private tuition. The study employed single case study. The sample for the study comprised of 57 teachers, 180 parents and 300 pupils from Year 6, 7 and 8 who mostly engage in private tuition. Data were collected by use of questionnaires and focus group discussions. Pre-testing was done to gauge the clarity and relevance of the instrument items. Findings revealed that pupils were largely engaged in private tuition and this enabled them to perform well. There was no doubt that the school provided good quality education as revealed by the stakeholders’ perceptions. The school’s performance did not at all encourage private tuition. Other findings were that parents engaged their children in private tuition to improve performance and to make them acquire better marks. It was further revealed that pupils’ entry behavior was one of the reasons why parents’ engaged their children in private tuition. Pupils who attended private tuition performed better than those who did not. It was concluded that parents engaged their children in private tuition to reinforce what had been done at school and to improve child’s grades in school. It was concluded that parents were willing to pay for private tuition though sometimes they faced challenges paying for their child’s private tuition. It was further concluded that parents were also ready to pay for private tuition despite pupils not needing it. It was also noted that parents influenced each other into providing their children with private tuition. It was concluded that parents did not engage teachers into private tuition in their homes but instead had their children engage in private tuitions at school. Based on the findings and conclusion the research recommended that private tuition be enhanced to cater for the needs of children unable to keep pace with the teaching-learning process in a normal classroom to improve their performance. Pupils with low entry behavior need support and guidance from private tuition to enable them catch up with other learners. That expenditure on private tutoring to be reviewed to make it affordable to all parents so that parents’ level of income does not affect pupil’s attendance to private tuitions. Lastly, that teachers to be more professional and cover entire curriculum within the stipulated time, to discourage laxity which in turn leads to high demand for private tuition. The researcher takes exception to the fact that the study was conducted in Oshwal International in Mombasa County yet private tuition practice in schools is a national issue. The researcher therefore suggested that the study be conducted in a larger area, or in the whole of Kenya to determine the actual factors influencing private tuition practice. Since the study was carried out in urban setting, there is need to conduct a similar study in a rural setting so as to compare the results.