Education for all : the status of the second millennium development goal in Kibera slum
Since the introduction of free primary education in Kenya in 2003, the country has made remarkable progress towards the realization of the Education for All (EFA) goals. However, there are sections of the Kenyan society that have continued to lag behind in the achievement of EFA. Such regions include slum areas, like the Kibera slums in Nairobi. EFA is concerned with the enrolment of children of school-going-age to school and is also the subject of the second Millennium Development Goal (MDG). This study seeks to find out the extent to which the Second Millennium Development goal has been achieved in Kibera slums of Nairobi. The research study investigates the barriers that hinder the attainment of full enrolment in primary schools in Kibera slums. The study is based on Immanuel Kant’s theory of liberal institutionalism. Kant proposed the formation of international organizations to facilitate cooperation between states. His views have been modified by neo-liberalists who advocate for international cooperation based on international regimes. The MDGs constitute an example of a regime. This study takes the research design of a case study. This design was chosen because it enables the researcher to trace out the natural history of a social unit and the relationship with the social factors and the forces involved in its surrounding environment. The design is supplemented by data obtained through interviews and use of questionnaires. Questionnaires were issued to two samples of respondents. The first sample was composed of 50 primary school teachers all teaching in formal and non-formal schools in Kibera. The second sample comprised of 50 community leaders in various villages of Kibera. 15 other respondents were interviewed. The study found full enrolment of children to primary schools in Kibera has not been realized with the respondents approximating that 10 to 15 per cent of children of school-going-age were missing school. Three main factors were found to contribute to the failure to realize the aim of the second MDG. The factors are: Extreme poverty, poor implementation of the Free Primary Education (FPE) programme and the negative social environment of the life in slums. Both study and policy recommendations have been put forward. The study recommends that there is need for more study to be done to determine the extent to which certain aspects of poverty contribute towards the failure to achieve full enrolment in primary schools in Kibera. Such aspects of poverty may include HIV/AIDS and disability.