Psychosocial risk factors on harmful alcohol use among people living in informal settlement in Nairobi
Background: The growth of the informal settlements has resulted in many, and complex socio-economic and environmental consequences. Informal settlements are characterized by congestion, high levels of unemployment, inadequate social services, extreme poverty, insecurity, crime, and hopelessness. By their very nature, informal settlements are replete with poor environmental factors that predispose their inhabitants to poor health outcomes. Experts suggest that poor living conditions and drug abuse are interrelated problems. Poor housing or homelessness can contribute to alcohol dependence or can make it more difficult to manage the problem. Aim of the Study: To determine the prevalence rate of harmful alcohol use among people taking alcohol in Babadogo slum. To investigate the psychosocial risk factors contributing to harmful alcohol use among people taking alcohol in Babadogo slum. The study also determined the impact of socio-demographic factors on harmful alcohol use among people taking alcohol in Babadogo slum. Methodology: The study adopted a descriptive survey design. It was conducted in Babadogo slum Kasarani Constituency, Nairobi. Study targeted households with individuals consuming alcohol (both male and female). Systematic random sampling was used to select households; every third household was selected on a random start between 1 and the sampling interval, 3. Researcher moved to the next household if the selected household did not have an individual consuming alcohol. Data from structured questionnaires was quantitatively analyzed by SPSS for Windows version 20.0. Differences in variables by group were evaluated using t-tests and ANOVA for continuous variables. Chi-square analyses were used to examine bivariate associations between categorical variables and presentation of results was by tables. Findings of the Study: The results show that most of the respondents (66.3%) were at highrisk of alcohol dependence amongst people consuming alcohol in Babadogo slums. Several socio-demographic factors were significantly correlated to risk level of alcohol dependence. These were: gender (p = 0.079), marital status (p = 0.009), level of education (p = 0.000), monthly household income (p = 0.000), onset age of drinking alcohol (p = 0.004), and frequency of parent alcohol use (p = 0.000). The results also revealed that there was a strong significant association (p = .000) between the most common psychosocial stressors determined and harmful alcohol use among people consuming alcohol in Babadogo slum. Recommendations: Study recommends that: specific treatment approaches targeting psychosocial stressors might play a central role in the prevention and treatment of harmful alcohol use; treatment approaches should contain important stress management components as cognitive restructuring, coping skills, and problem-solving skills; and treatment programs should recognize the importance of social support systems in managing psychosocial stressors.