Weak states and trans- border security: the effect of Democratic Republic of Congo on Rwanda
This study sought to identify numerous links between weak states and trans-border security threats, ranging from terrorism and nuclear proliferation to the spread of infectious diseases, environmental degradation, and energy security. Criminal groups can thrive off the illicit needs of weak states, especially those subject to international sanctions; regimes and rebel groups have been known to solicit the services of vast illicit arms trafficking networks to fuel deadly conflicts in countries such as the DRC, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Afghanistan, Angola, and Sudan when arms embargoes had been imposed by the United Nations and other members of the international community. The study was organized into five chapters: Chapter one introduced the background content to the topic of research, statement of the research problem, objectives of the study, study justification, literature review, theoretical orientation and study methodology employed, chapter two established the understanding, causes and the consequences of weak state where it also provided an analysis of the cause behind the statelessness, chapter three established the index of state weakness in the developing world. Moreover, the chapter reviews the scholarly contributions to understanding state weakness, and it suggests criteria and indicators to capture statelessness for comparative purposes, chapter four provided a critical analysis of how DRC weakness affects Rwanda’s’ national security and finally chapter five provided a summary, conclusion and recommendations. This research employed a descriptive research design to obtain a secondary data in critical analysis of how DRC weakness affects Rwanda’s national security. This approach was chosen because the study involves investigating variables which are not easy to quantify. The study heavily relied on secondary written materials and documents from the archives were used in collecting secondary data. The data analysis was qualitative and took place concurrently with data collection. Using mapping aspects, the various variables were categorized on an ordinal scale. This provided the most manageable way of measuring the variables in the study. The themes that emerged from the interviews and from document analyses formed the basis of further collection and summary. The analysis of the final data will make it possible for themes to be identified and findings to be presented descriptively. The researcher expects to have limited scope to examine the emerging patterns within this research to inform this study makes the cross-national comparisons of data with the study situation problematic. The study finding established the weak states and trans-border security by establishing the effect of democratic republic of Congo on Rwanda. The paper argues that there are structural causes that underpin the conflict such as colonial legacy, weak governance, fragility, contested citizenship, greed for resources, land tenure and group territorial claims. Factors that act as drivers to the conflict such as spillover effects of conflicts in neighbouring countries, organized armed groups, and proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) have also been identified.