What Happened to the Internet? Scientific Communities in Three Low-income Areas, 2000-2010
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This ten year study suggests that the digital divide in connectivity may have largely closed for the scientific community in parts of the world that were previously unconnected. Almost a decade ago Ynalvez et al. (2005) examined the diffusion of information and communication technologies (icts) in the knowledge production sectors of three developing areas, using data collected at the turn of the millennium. We supplement this data set with a similar survey ten years later. Our analysis addresses the extent to which research communities in three low-income areas (Kenya, Ghana, and Kerala) now have access to icts, providing the first longitudinal data on changes in access to computers, email, and the Internet. In contrast to 2000, where the majority of scientists viewed themselves as users of email but with shared and irregular access to computers and the Internet—access to technology has become almost universal, though significant regional differences remain.