To compare validity of formative assessment in relation to summative assessment of English language public primary schools in Bureti District, Kericho County
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Education in Kenya and the world as a whole has received a lot of scrutiriy by the desire to harness the recorded benefit that education provides to both individual who receives it and the government which is the sole provider. In Kenya the achievement of primary schooling is assessed through Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) which is offered by Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC). The study involved comparison of validity Formative Assessment (FA) and Summative Assessment (SA) of English in public primary schools in Buret District Kericho County. In order to fulfill the purpose of the study various relevant research questions' objectives, significance, hypothesis and possible delimitation of study were highlighted clearly so as to achieve the desired goal of the study. Literature Review was done exhaustively to enhance various related studies on the topic to enhance the success of the study and to fill the gap of knowledge that exist. Various causes of mismatch between formative and summative assessment will be highlighted in detail. Effects of formative assessment on curriculum, teaching, motivation, students, teaching discussed in detail. Factors that affect and mitigate formative assessment were highlighted clearly. Approaches to minimize the gap between formative and summative assessment that are already researched are evidenced clearly. Finally, theoretical framework to discuss on relationships between dependent and independent various are evidenced in the study. Chapter three on methodology which consisted of introduction, research design, target population, sampling and sampling procedure, research instruments, pilot testing, coding scheme, data analysis and ethical consideration. The general performances in English papers in FA (MOCK) tests are higher than in SA (KCPE) tests where distracters, stem, and key are not closely related. Teachers cover the syllabus at the right time and their tests items entirely cover the syllabus. Most teachers have acquired the KNEC testing techniques. The study further concluded that there's a proper link between the question items and the marking scheme in external set exams. Otherwise, most teachers adjust the question to match the marking scheme. In cases where tests items are outsourced, the teachers always ensure to vet the past papers before purchasing them. Teachers also do analysis of the tests and scores and implement accordingly. They are therefore accountable for the exam results. They associate good results with benefits (rewards and self-satisfaction) and poor results associated with threats (personal guilt and demotion). Validity in terms of content, criterion, and construct are lower in FA tests and higher in SA tests. Finally, the FA tests give more focus on knowledge, understanding, application, and analysis as compared to synthesis, creating and evaluating in the Bloom's taxonomy. In contrast, in the summative assessments (KCPE) papers, the focus is evenly distributed across all levels.