Anthelmintic activity of Phytolacca dodecandra and Vernonia amygdalina leaf extracts in naturally infected small East African goats
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Livestock contribute in a major way to household food security and income. However livestock productivity of free ranging stock is undermined by helminthes infections despite infection is the most neglected area of veterinary extension service. The objective of this study was to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of aqueous crude extract of Phytolacca dodecandra and Vernonia amygdalina against naturally acquired mixed parasites infections in goats as alternative control strategies. The efficacy of single dose extract of P. dodecandra and V. amygdalina with negative and positive controls were evaluated in 6-9 months old goats, naturally infected with nematodes parasites over a 28 day period using faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Modified McMaster egg counting technique was used for quantification of nematode eggs on individual faecal samples collected once-weekly for four weeks of the experimental period. Culture were done to isolate and identify the infecting parasites using modified Baerman technique. The P. dodecandra, V. amygdalina crude extracts and Albendazole achieved a maximum percentage mean epg per gram (EPG) output reduction of 57%, 66% and 99.8% respectively by 21 days post treatment. Both P. dodecandra and V. amygdalina crude extracts significantly reduced the worm egg production in goats compared (p< 0.001) with the negative control but the two plants were not significantly different in the effect (p>0.05). The two plants’ extracts effects also significantly differed with the positive control, albendazole (p < 0.001). The study revealed that the goats were parasitized by Oesoghagostomum, Haemonchus, Nematodirus, Strongyloides, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Bunostomum, Tricuris and Strongylus sp. The current study showed conclusively that P. dodecandra and V.amygdalina plant extracts possess anthelmintic activity thus providing support for their traditional use in veterinary practices. More detailed studies on these plant species involving changing dose rates on a specific parasite and different bioassay should be done.