Influence of participatory monitoring and evaluation on citizen empowerment outcomes: a case of Karemo division, Siaya county, Kenya
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While there is a considerable enthusiasm for participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) in monitoring and evaluation, the claim to its effectiveness has hardly been tested empirically. This study assessed the extent to which PM&E influences citizen empowerment. The empirical investigation took the form of a mixed-methods approach. The study employed a concurrent parallel design, in which samples for quantitative and qualitative components were drawn from the same population and data collected within the same time frame. Two hundred and twelve participants responded to a self-report questionnaire. Six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted; two with starter group members and four with 4 CBOs randomly selected from each of the locations within the study area. The participants were community members who participated in a World Vision International's PM&E model. Quantitative data were analysed through linear regression analyses while, the qualitative component utilized interpretive technique, coding and recursive abstraction to organize, summarize and give an impression of the causal mechanisms at play in the quantitative data. Both the quantitative and qualitative findings support the notion that there is a positive linear relationship between PM&E and citizen empowerment. Policies that provide opportunity for citizens to participate in M&E process are therefore advised as worth of investment since they can lead to significant impact on citizen empowerment outcomes.