Environmental problems of the developing countries.
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In developing countries, rapid population growth and related problems with inadequate development cause adverse changes in the environment. These changes stem from poverty. Further, structural changes in and spatial redistribution of the population aggravate the high rate of population growth in developing countries. As population grows, so also does the number of dependent people, particularly children. The most important change in spatial distribution is rising urbanization (4.6%, 1960-1970). During the 1970s, urbanization is expected to occur most rapidly in Africa (5%), South Asia (4.5%), and Latin America (4.2%). UN projections indicate that the population of Lagos, Nigeria, will rise 5 times during 1970-1985 and the population size of Sao Paulo, Brazil, will increase from 7.8 to 16.8 million. This concentration of many people in cities burdens the infrastructure (housing, power, sanitation, schools, and transportation). Unchecked urban growth disrupts the environment and causes environmental sanitation problems. Developing countries simultaneously face the predicament of the need for development and adverse effects of modern development. They need to raise agricultural productivity to feed the growing population, yet lack the technology, such as irrigation technology, to do so. Besides, technology can inflict damage on the environment (e.g., agricultural pesticides) and does not increase employment opportunities for the ever growing population. Further, in their quest for development and industrialization, developing countries do not necessarily implement safeguards to protect the environment. Contraceptive technology must be part of the development strategy of developing countries, as it was and is available for those in developed regions, to achieve reduction in population growth