Immunological Responses of Mice After Treatment with Ocimum Americanum Hexane and Bridelia Micrantha Water Plant Extracts
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Background-The T helper 1 (TH1) and TH2 dichotomy was first shown in murine CD4+ lymphocytes clones and these cells could be differentiated in terms of the cytokines they secrete. The TH1 subsets produce interleukin 2 (IL-2,) interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and lymphotoxin, TH2 subsets produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 IL-10 and IL-13. An important function of the TH2 response during infection is to produce cytokines that can prevent or dampen the production or effector functions of potentially dangerous inflammatory mediators. Results The results obtained showed that Ocimum americanum hexane (OAH) and Bridelia micrantha (BMW) water extract had antischistosomal activity. This was indicated by low worm recovery, high worm reduction, and reduced gross pathology with histopathology showing no or few granulomas in the liver tissue, which was similar to Praziquantel (PZQ). The two extracts had both cellular and humoral responses as demonstrated by IFN-γ, IL-5 and IgG responses. OAH and BMW were significantly similar to PZQ; however BMW had higher IgG responses. BMW had higher IFN-γ responses for both spleen and lymph node cells. Conclusion this implied that treatment groups were able to produce the TH-1 response which is important for cell mediated immunity. Although both extracts induced production of IL-5 for both lymph node and spleen cells, OAH generated more IL-5.