Factors affecting the implementation of guidance and counselling in public primary schools; a case study of Makadara Division; Nairobi
Ondier, Mary A
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The study was built on the premise that guidance and counseling is complementary to learning and improves academic performance, access, participation, retention and the completion rates of the pupils. It sought to identify the indicators of successful implementation of guidance and counseling, challenges facing its implementation and strategies that can be put in place to enhance its implementation in the public primary schools in Makadara Division. The study, which was based on two theories, Psychoanalysis by Dr Sigmund Freud (1856) and Person Centered Counseling Theory by Carl Rodgers (1940) focused on factors that influence guidance and counseling programme namely availability of resources, time allocation, curriculum for guidance and counseling, training of the counseling teachers and their work load. It also focused on strategies that are used to enhance guidance and counseling programs such as the planning, involvement of stakeholders, training of the counseling Key Resource Teachers and peer educators, referrals of complicated cases and monitoring and evaluation of the programs. The study is expected to be of benefit to the pupils, school counselors, researchers, policy makers, and the administrators in the Ministry of Education. The methodology used was descriptive research design. Probability and non probability sampling was used to sample the schools and the respondents who participated in the study. Structured questionnaires and interview guides were used as instrument of data collection and were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative techniques. The study concluded that the current guidance and counseling regime Makadara Division fell short of expectation and recommended reduced workload and further training of the counseling key resource teachers. The Ministry of Education should design a curriculum and allocate funds for its implementation. Further study should be undertaken to better understand the relationship between guidance and counseling and academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Makadara Division.