A review of the pattern of AIDS defining, HIV associated neoplasms and premalignant lesions diagnosed from 2000–2011 at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya
Rogena, Emily A
Simbiri, Kenneth O
De Falco, G.
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Abstract Background Sub-Sahara Africa hosts up to 71 % of all HIV infected people in the world. With this high incidence of Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) comes the burden of co-morbidities such as malignant and premalignant lesions. Aids defining malignancies have been listed as Kaposi’s sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. People with HIV/AIDS(PLWAS) have a higher risk of developing these neoplasms than the rest of the population. The pathogenesis of these neoplasms in people with HIV has been linked to immune suppression, persistent antigenic stimulation and cytokine dysregulation. Current study analyzes and presents the patterns and trends in the presentation of HIV related malignancies in patients diagnosed through histopathology at Kenyatta National Hospital. Aim To describe the patterns of AIDS- defining and non-AIDS- defining malignancies and premalignant lesions 10 years pre- and post HAART period at Kenyatta National hospital, Kenya. Methods and techniques This was a hospital based descriptive cross sectional study. The Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) blocks and histological reports of patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2011 were traced from archives. The patients’ demographic data and clinical presentation was entered in an excel spreadsheet and the diagnosis and coding confirmed by a histopathologist. The data was then cleaned and analyzed using SSPS version 17.0 Ink. Results A total of 173 lesions were reviewed and analyzed. Of these 118 (68 %) were from females and 55 from males (32 %). The male to female ratio was 1:2. The age range was from two to 56 years with a median of 36 years. Kaposi sarcoma is the leading AIDS defining malignancy in Kenya while invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is the leading non-AIDS defining malignancy. This is closely followed by invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and NHL. Conclusion Kaposi sarcoma is the leading AIDS associated neoplasm in Kenya. Physicians and caretakers managing and following up on HIV/AIDS patients should look out for Kaposi sarcoma as a form of IRIS following the institution of HAART in all HIV/AIDS patients. The incidence of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is increasing in PLWAS in Kenya. There is therefore a need to introduce early screening programs for squamous intraepithelial neoplasm of the conjunctiva in HIV/AIDS patients.