Insecurity of land tenure and its impact on the environments of Muyeye, Malindi, Kenya
Abstract Security of land tenure influences the quality of development and the physical environment. Security of security of land tenure varies from one settlement to another and from one plot to another. Any effort that increases security of land tenure in most cases if not all leads to a corresponding improvement in the quality of the physical environment. Likewise, an effort that leads to improved quality of the environment increases the security of land tenure to some extent. This is the idea behind all informal settlement upgrading projects whose approach is providing adequate security of land to the occupiers of informal settlements. This research therefore aimed at providing practical and appropriate land tenure options for increasing security of land tenure that can be applied together with other mechanisms in upgrading informal settlements. The research investigated land tenure conditions within Muyeye informal settlement under which various plots exist, both the ones with comparatively higher quality of the physical environment and those with comparatively lower quality of the physical environment, so that lessons on increasing security of land tenure can be borrowed from the plots with comparatively higher quality of physical environment and used to develop mechanisms for increasing security of land tenure for the plots with comparatively lower quality of physical environment. The research also investigated a number of mechanisms successfully applied elsewhere both within and outside Kenya and borrows heavily in developing mechanisms for upgrading informal settlements in Kenya. Findings of the research reveals that for Muyeye informal settlement, land tenure insecurity of the plots varies from comparatively very low levels to comparatively high levels depending on the conditions under which the plots are held and that the quality of the physical environment was directly proportional to the level of security of land tenure. It also proves that it is possible to increase security of land tenure and thus improve on the quality of the physical environment within an informal settlement by adjusting internal circumstances through internal arrangements as opposed to providing title deeds to the occupiers. The research also reveals that bodies and agencies mandated to provide security of land tenure contribute either knowingly or unknowingly towards increasing insecurity of land tenure.