GIS for assessing pro-poor urban water sanitation and hygiene (wash) services case study: Mradi Embakasi village Nairobi
Dense low-income urban communities are often confronted with poor water and sanitation services, which are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality that is highly preventable using inexpensive interventions. This study set out to use Geographic Information Systems to assess water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services in Mradi Embakasi village as case of a pro-poor urban.Data was collected using spatial data collection techniques using GPS enabled android mobile phone powered by Open Data kit application. The spatial data was complemented with household, water point, toilet, dumping site and key informant questionnaire others included direct observation, systematic walk about, literature survey and key informant interviewing. Data analysis was done using vector and raster analysis tools in QGIS these tools included cartographic and data management tools, feature extraction, visualization, overlay analysis, proximity analysis and spatial statistical analysis tools. The results were visualized using maps. Statistical data analysis used pivot table in Excel and SPSS was used for quantitative data analysis. Results were displayed in charts and tables. 4 water points, 49 toilets and 8 main dumping sites were mapped and 50 households were sampled. 88% of household obtained water within the 200m from the 4 water points. With Each water point being accessed by an average of 100 residential buildings, the average size per household was 4 persons.78% of respondents did not have enough water for all members.76% of households obtained water from unprotected sources with high risk of contamination, 74% of the households were found to spend between 5 shillings to 15 shilling. The toilets were located 50 meters from the households, with a minimum of 8 households sharing one toilet. No toilets were found in the business areas. Eight main dumping sites mapped were open and overflowing with mixed waste.47% of households walked less than 50 meters to dump their waste in the main dumping site. The major sanitation problems in regards to WASH in MRADI included dirty and few communal toilets, lack of hand washing facility , poor waste disposal, inconsideration of vulnerable groups in toilets construction, open defecation, contaminated water sources and open sewerage. Using GIS this study identified important geographic inequalities in distribution of WASH services. Using GIS maps and analytical approach provided a mechanism for monitoring future reductions in inequality within the area, reflecting priorities for the post-2015 development agenda.