Influence of empowerment programme on sexual behaviour change among female sex workers, a case of family aids clinic in Nakuru, Kenya
This research sought to examine how a specific empowerment program influenced sexual behavior change among female sex workers enrolled at the Family AIDS Initiative Response Clinic that is based in Nakuru County in Kenya. The objectives of this study were drawn from approaches that the empowerment program used to help the enrolled sex workers. These objectives include; capacity building, support through small and medium enterprises, outreach and agricultural-based support activities. Despite rapid growth in empowerment programs in Kenya as well as the ballooning number of agencies dealing with empowerment and rural development, the impact of such programs and projects on sexual behavior change especially on female sex workers has not been given sufficient attention in most empirical literature studied. This study was therefore guided by four objectives derived from strategies employed by the program under study. Empirical literature of the works of widely published scholars was reviewed. The study was hinged on two models namely; social cognitive behavior theory and the theory of change. The nexus between study variables was demonstrated by a conceptual framework that exemplifies interrelationships between variables. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a target population of 150 respondents. Using the Krejcie and Morgan table for determining sample size, 108 respondents were sampled for this study. To achieve a desired representation, simple random sampling was used in selecting respondents. A questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale was constructed and used to collect the required data. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS Version 21.0. Quantitative data was analyzed by making inferences from the expressions and opinions of the respondents around the variables and presented descriptively to make inferences. Instrument’s validity was determined by using construct’s validity while reliability was determined by using the Cronbach-Alpha Coefficient. Pilot testing of the questionnaire was done 2 weeks prior to the main study. It is hoped this study would generate vital information and add to the pool of knowledge to the ever-expanding discipline of program evaluation. From the multiple regression findings, a unit change in capacity building led to 1.000 unit increase in sexual behavior change. A 1.000 unit increase in support by SMEs also led to 1.076 increases in sexual behavoiur change. The findings also indicated that there was a highly significant relationship (with t statistic p value <0.023 < 0.05) between capacity building and sexual behavoiur change among female sex workers. Again, the same findings also indicated that there existed a highly significant relationship (with t statistic p value <0.0015 < 0.05) between support through SME’s and sexual behavior change among female sex workers. However there seemed to exist no significant relationship between outreach activities and sexual behavior change at (p = 0.220 > 0.05) and between agricultural activities and sexual behavior change with (p = 1.000 > 0.05). In conclusion therefore, the researcher observed that there existed highly significant relationships between capacity building and support through SME’s against sexual behaviour change in female sex workers, while there existed no relationships between outreach and agricultural activities against sexual behavoiur change amongst female sex workers enrolled at family AIDS initiative clinic. On this basis, the researcher recommends that a comprehensive study be undertaken to find out the joint influence of capacity building and micro and medium enterprises on sexual behavior change among female sex workers elsewhere in Kenya.