An investigation into the challenges facing implementation of slum upgrading programmes in Kenya: a case study of Manyatta, Kisumu county
The proliferation of slums has become evident in developing countries as the rate of urbanization increase. This is coupled by the rapid population growth in these countries. However their economies are not growing in tandem with the rise in population. It has become increasingly glaring that most of the urban population live in dehumanizing conditions. Despite the progress made on slum improvement, this has not been enough to counter the growth of the slums as the absolute number of slums residents has continuously increased despite the upgrading efforts.It is in this context, that this study seeks to establish the challenges facing implementation of slum upgrading programmes in Manyatta Kisumu. The specific objectives of this study were: To find how existing policy on slum affect implementation of the programmes in Manyatta Kisumu County; to establish and rank the critical factors that affect the implementation of slum upgrading programmes; to determine the level of influence of the most ranked factor on implementation of the programme in Manyatta and to recommend ways through which the identified challenges may be addressed. Purposive sampling and Stratified random sampling techniques were used in the case of department of slum upgrading in the Ministry of Land, Housing and Urban development and Manyatta residents whose sample sizes were 15 and 382 respectively. The study also employed case study design where the data was analyzed descriptively and presented in tables, figures graphs and pie charts. The study found that, implementation of Manyatta slum upgrading programme faces several challenges that include:- Diverse interests from various groups, various levels of power and influence-absentee landlord, low or poor budgetary allocations, residents not being aware of an existing slum policy, lack of an institutional framework to guide the slum upgrading process, lack of participation from slum dwellers, politicization of the slum upgrading issues, lack of adequate land and security of tenure, lack of good will and trust from the slum dweller , environmental degradation, lack of adequate public consultation and poor quality of workmanship. It is in view of these challenges, that the study recommended that participatory approach should be used in implementing the programme; the increased budgetary allocations should focus more on house development and employment and education should be an integral part of the upgrading programme as a base to promote their dignity and freedom so as to capture good will and trust form slum dwellers.