School based factors influencing inclusion of learners with disabilities in primary schools in Kakuma refugee camp, Turkana county,Kenya
The purpose of the study was to find out school-based factors influencing inclusion of learners with disabilities in primary schools in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Turkana County. The Study aimed at achieving the following specific objectives: To establish the extent to which teachers’ attitudes influences inclusion of learners with disabilities in primary schools in Kakuma Refugee Camp, to determine the extent to which teacher’s training influences handling learners with disabilities in primary schools in Kakuma Refugee Camp, to establish the extent to which attitudes of learners influences inclusion of learners with disabilities in primary schools in Kakuma Refugee Camp and to examine the extent to which infrastructural facilities available influence inclusion of learners with disabilities in primary schools in Kakuma Refugee Camp. The study adopted descriptive survey research design using both qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. The target population for this study constituted 13 primary schools, 13 head teachers, 1950 class seven pupils in the 13 schools and 260 teachers from primary schools in Kakuma refugee camp and it had a sample size of 13 head teachers, 155 teachers and 320 learners. The Data Collection Instruments was a questionnaire that is self-administered, interview schedule and observation list. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics namely Frequencies, percentages and presented by use of tables. The study concludes Primary schools at Kakuma Refugee camp are not conducive for learners with disabilities. This is contrary to (UNESCO) view that regular schools with an inclusive setting are the most effective way to fight against discriminatory attitudes in order to build an inclusive society and to achieve education for all. Primary schools in the camp were not conducive for learners using wheelchairs. This goes against the concept of special need education that inclusive education described as a framework for action that would accommodate all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic, or other conditions. The school environment has not been designed to fit learners with disabilities and Teachers do not appreciate inclusion of learners with disabilities. Regular learners have positive attitude towards learners with disabilities. The study concludes that teachers in mainstream school in the camp were not trained to handle children with disabilities. The study recommends that Implementing Agencies of Education in the camp in collaboration with UNHCR and the government of Kenya, needs to provide teachers trained in special needs education at the camp and also ensure that some incentive teachers from the refugee communities are trained on inclusive education. For inclusive education to succeed in the Kakuma Refugee camp, some modification ought to be done to the school environment to ensure that the needs of disabled are catered for. The government of Kenya could also help in providing some of the necessary support like training teachers in inclusive education, sensitization also needs to be done so that learners and teachers and community at large can change their views concerning people with disabilities and that the government and the ministry of education should provide suitable infrastructure necessary for all learners with disabilities.