Approaches influencing readiness for peaceful excavation of minerals in Kenya: the case of Mui basin coal mines in Kitui county.
The purpose of this study was to identify approaches influencing readiness for peaceful excavation of minerals in Mui basin coal mines in Kitui County, Kenya. It sought to answer research questions on the extent to which relocation of displaced communities systems, stakeholders cultural practices, civic education and government compensation policies influence peaceful excavation of coal mines in Mui basin. The study reviewed related literature from books, articles and journals in order to get more insight on these factors identified to influence peaceful mining. This study employed a descriptive survey research design and target village elders, excavating personnel and local administration in Kitui County. Stratified sampling technique was used to ensure that respondents who were purposefully selected were evenly distributed to represent the whole sub-county. The study used questionnaires, interview schedules and focus group discussion to collect empirical data from the obtained sample size. Document analysis was also done to evaluate available information in regard to the onset of the mining process. Each item in the research tools was developed to address a specific objective. Collected data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively using descriptive statistics. The study findings revealed that loal communities in Mui Basin mine fields were relocated to pave way for excavation causing violence between excavators and local communities. Cultural practices cause violence between excavators and local communities at a high extent. This was because excavators‟ and locals‟ traditions, lifestyle and beliefs differ, thus causing each group to undermine the others way of life an aspect that could cause conflict. The study further revealed that majority of this challenges where constituted by lack of proper information about the excavation processes which eventually erupt into violence. Moreover measures taken by the government to address eruption of violence include holding public barazas and seminars for key players to ensure prevalence of peace in the area. To achieve readiness for peaceful excavation of mineral excavation the study recommended that: individuals, families and ethnic groups must engage the preparation thorough self-examination and assessment to ascertain and determine the relevance of existing values and socio cultural system to their economic progress and wellbeing, and select and retain only those values that are capable of helping society to achieve its economic progress and development goals through the enhancement of entrepreneurial emergence, and discontinue with values that do not allow individuals to actualize their potentials and explore opportunities for profitable economic engagement. Having explored the approaches influencing readiness for peaceful excavation of minerals in Mui coal mines in Kitui County, Kenya, the researcher proposes a study on the influence of excavation of minerals in Mui Basin coal mines on local residents‟ social economic status