Institutional factors influencing girl- child participation in primary education in Kwanza division, Trans-nzoia county, Kenya
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing girl-child’s participation in primary education in Kwanza Division, Trans-Nzoia County Kenya. The study sought to determine the extent to which pupil’s age, pupil/teacher relationships, provision of sanitary towels, peer pressure and guidance and counseling influence girl-child participation in primary education in Kwanza Division, Trans-Nzoia County, Kenya. There are 35 primary schools in the Kwanza Division, Trans-Nzoia County, Kenya. The study targeted population comprised of 35 headteachers, 35 class teachers and 420 girls from the sampled schools. Simple random sampling technique was used to select schools whereas the respondents were picked purposively. The respondents who were picked purposively were those from double streams because of their larger population. Out of 35 schools, 10 of them were double streams. The study used self-constructed questionnaires as research instruments to administer to head teachers, class eight teachers and class eight girls. A test retest technique was used to estimate the degree to which the same results could be obtained with the same repeated measure of accuracy. The data was then analyzed using frequency tables. 168 girls equivalent to 40% of those interviewed showed that age was a determining factor in girl child participation in education. 80% of the headteachers, 70% of the class teachers, 66% of the pupils indicated that those who got involved in pupil teacher relationships were affected. Provision of sanitary towels was a factor to be considered as those who received indicated by 45% participated in education as compared to 50% of those who did not receive and did not participate in education. The findings of the study indicated that girl-child participation in primary Education was influenced by age, pupil/teacher relationship, provision of sanitary towels, peer pressure and guidance and counseling. The study concludes that girls should not be made to repeat classes; they should always be motivated to perform well so that they are promoted to the next classes. The study also concludes that pupil/teacher relationships should be cordial, friendly and be full of encouragement but not harassment to foster daily attendance of school by girls; they should be regularly given sanitary towels. The study also concludes that that peer pressure greatly affects girl-child participation in primary Education; the girls should be guided and counseled regularly. The study recommends that acceleration should be allowed to girls who are overage so that they can complete primary Education in time. The study also recommends that acceleration should be allowed to girls who are over age so that they can complete primary Education in time. The study also recommends that male teacher found harassing the girls should be dealt with according to the Teachers Service Commission, TSC regulations. Further research was suggested to be done on girlchild participation in primary Education in Private Schools and also be done to investigate factors influencing girl-child access to primary Education in Kwanza Division, Trans-Nzoia County.