Influence of envrinmental factors on pupils' participation in education in public primary schools in Oldonyiro sub county, Kenya
This study sought to investigate the influence of drought on pupils‟ participation in primary education in public schools in Oldonyiro Sub-county Isiolo County, Kenya. The objectives of the study was to establish the influence of conflict, distance from home to school, child labour, and family displacement on pupils‟ participation in primary education in public schools. To achieve this, the study used descriptive research design. The target population was the 14 head teachers, 70 teachers, and 3145 pupils from public primary schools in the division. The sample consisted of 315 pupils, 14 head teachers and 70 teachers. The Questionnaires were used to collect data from the respondents. Data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The study established that poverty in the region is a major impediment to the participation of pupils in public primary schools. The study further established that cultural factors such as early marriages, cattle rustling among others has contributed to the poor participation of pupils in schools. The perception that girls are not meant to receive education has contributed to their low enrolment in the region. The study also established that students travelled long distances to school through harsh environment and on an empty stomach. This affected the participation in primary schools in the region. The long distances that the students travelled made them arrive for classes late which may have a negative impact on their learning. This negatively affects their retention in schools. Insecurity affected pupils participation in schools, however to a small extent as not many pupils and teachers were displaced as a result of the conflict. The key recommendation from the study is that the government should empower the parents by the introduction of the irrigation agriculture where the households will be self reliant in terms of food production and may reduce reliance on the donor based school feeding programme. The other recommendation is that through sensitization, the community should be educated practices that undermine education such as early marriages and cattle rustling. The study also recommends that the communities in Oldonyiro Sub-county should be educated on the importance of taking their children to school and why all children are equal despite their gender differences. Finally, study recommends that the government should construct more schools so that the children should access schools without traveling long distances.