School based factors influencing pupils participation in public primary school education in west Karachuonyo division, Kenya
This research study aimed at investigating the school based factors influencing pupils’ participation in public primary schools education in West Karachuonyo Division Rachuonyo North District, Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to determine the influence of instructional materials on pupils participation in public primary schools, determine the effects of teacher qualifications on pupils participation in public primary school, determine how school curriculum effects pupils participation in public primary school education, assess the influence of guidance and counseling on pupils participation in public primary school education and establish the influence of physical facilities on pupils participation in primary schools in West Karachuonyo Division. This study was guided by Education Production Function theory as advocated by Coleman 1960 in Psacharopoulos and Woodhall (1985). The study was conducted using the descriptive survey design. The target population consisted of the 72 primary schools, 72 head teachers, 432 teachers and 16500 pupils, that is from class 4 to 8 (AEOs office, 2012) who had information on school based factors influencing pupils’ participation in primary school education. Head teachers (36), teachers (196) and pupils (370) were the sample size of the target respondents for this study. Research instruments used to collect data were questionnaires for teachers and pupils and an interview schedule for head teachers. The researcher used the test retest method to enhance instrument reliability. The study yielded data that required both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS computer programme version 17.0 and qualitative data manually. Presentation was done using frequency distribution tables with values and percentages. From the findings of the study, it was established that head teachers (44.4%) and teachers (40.0%) had taught for 16 and above years since they left college. Besides, availability of qualified teachers, through in-service courses, seminars or workshops, determines the participation of pupils in schools. The results also indicate that 71.0% of pupils reported that they had repeated classes. However, it is not only poor performance leading to repetition but also lack of fees and indiscipline among some pupils. There were some factors as a result of peer pressure contributing to pupils’ dropout. Majorly cited factors were indiscipline cases (31.8%) and pupils’ negative attitude towards class work (28.2%). The study concludes that head teachers’ and teachers’ provision of guidance and counseling to pupils would enable them complete the eight years in primary school. Through guiding and counseling also most girls would achieve their dreams in life by avoiding early pregnancy. The researcher recommends parents to offer full support to their children and also to work hand in hand with teachers to curb issues of absenteeism and enable pupils complete school. Also, public primary schools to be equipped with adequate teaching and learning resources to enable pupils complete school. Basing on areas for further research, the study recommends researches on the role Ministry of Education and other collaborating partners to curb dropout in public primary schools in Kenya, and relationship between educational level of the parents and the level of educational attainment of the children.