Effects of shared resources on interstate relations in the horn of Africa: case study of the Mara-serengeti national parks in Kenya and Tanzania
Kenya and Tanzania spend huge amounts of capital to develop nature-reserves, which are enormous regions of their territory, with examples of the Maasai Mara National Reserve and the Serengeti National Park. However, due to non-existence of proper taxation systems, corruption alongside ineffective administration that lack modernized information technology; these reserves get to be highly unprofitable. The result of unprofitability, raise the inability of the states to run the nature reserves, putting both countries into constant affirmations of seeking monetary infusions from industrialized nations. The seek for aid, constantly puts the two states in a dilemma, over who benefits most from the nature reserves, creating mistrust among the two, on economic gains from international community based aid and donations, meant to maintain the nature reserves. As a result, numerous effects of these shared resources get to emerge, affecting the interstate relations what could be identified to be the ‘tragedy of the commons’. Therefore, through study objectives that sought to identify and assess the effects of shared resources on interstate relations, the study investigated strategies used in addressing these effects and recommend on workable policies and activities that assisted in addressing the effects. The study area was identified through stratified sampling from a list of many interstate shared resources considering the fact that it meets the threshold and scope of the study. The research targeted to interview a total of 15 participants. Other data was collected through multiplicity of data collection methods among them; questionnaire, in-depth interview and observation. Data collected was analysed through qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods and then key findings of this study revealed for recommendations. The study found that sharing of natural resources has an impact on interstate relations. The study found that scarcity of these natural resources, territorial conflicts, political conflicts, revenue administration are the main causes of conflicts between states sharing natural resources. The study concluded that natural resources have an effect on interstate relations. The study recommended that Kenya and Tanzania should implement agreements by mapping the border according to the international regulations governing sharing of natural resources.