Sustainable water management and food security in Kenya: a case study of Nyakach division in Kisumu county
There is a great percentage of people who live in areas where there is water scarcity. About 2.8 billion people (more than 40%) of the world live in river basins faced with the problem. In addition, 1.6 billion people live in areas of economic water scarcity, where even though water is available, human, institutional and financial capital limit access to water. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sustainable water management and food security in Kenya and especially in the case of Nyakach Division, Kisumu County. It was guided by the following objective: To assess the factors influencing unsustainable water management and food insecurity in Nyakach Division in Kisumu County, To evaluate likely effects of poor water management and issues in food security in Kenya and To examine community-led initiatives in managing water resources Nyakach Division in Kisumu County. The study aimed to test the following hypothesis: Water management don’t have significant positive influence on food security in Nyakach Division in Kisumu County and Community-led initiatives in managing water resources have a significant positive influence on sustainable water management and food security in Nyakach Division in Kisumu County. The study was anchored on liberal theory and was necessary for making decisions on sustainable water management and food security projects. This theory has developed a forceful case for autonomous, elected local authorities. First local government is grounded in the belief that there is value in the spread of power and the involvement of many decision-makers in many different localities. The second argument rests on the view that there is strength in the diversity of response. The study adopted a cross sectional survey. The study used both secondary and primary data. Secondary data was obtained from Library research which will be conducted by reviewing works related to the area of study. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. The study findings was used to compile the report. The study established that Nyakach is part of Nyando basin which is prone to displacement of population due to floods and other natural calamities like landslides. The area has unstable soil formation and little water sources. It also has low accessibility to water coverage and lack of adequate sanitation and water resource management. Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this area contributing to deaths of children under 5 years of age which stands at 212/1000 births. The study also established that majority of respondents interviewed had experienced food insecurity. The study concludes that access to safe water is a fundamental human right just like food, but it should be recognized that a right to water does not mean free water. Water scarcity has a huge impact on food production. Without water people do not have a means of watering their crops and, therefore, to provide food for the fast growing population. Agriculture, is constantly competing with domestic, industrial and environmental uses for a scarce water supply. The Government should purpose to supply all homes in Nyakach and other affected areas with basic water requirement for preserving human survival and well-being.