A situational analysis On pharmaceutical Waste management in Nairobi county, Kenya
Pharmaceutical waste (PW) includes pharmaceuticals that are no longer needed but it also includes containers and other used items that may contain remnants of pharmaceutical substances. Pharmaceutical waste management (PWM) is defined as all activities, both administrative and operational, for handling PW. Poor PWM may be deleterious to both human health and the environment. In the hospital set up, pharmaceutical waste is managed as part of healthcare waste (HCW) in accordance with the existing guidelines. Similar guidelines for PWM in community pharmacies are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the prevailing situation of PWM in Nairobi County, Kenya. A total of 477 community pharmacies were listed through mapping in 26 out of 85 wards, selected through cluster sampling. A self administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection among the selected participants. The response rate was 57%. The respondents were categorized as either good or poor (adequate or inadequate) according to their respective scores. Chi square was used to determine associations. Over 70% of respondents were adequately qualified to practice sound PWM. About 62% of participating CPs had access to adequate disposal infrastructure. About 79% of the respondents had adequate knowledge of PWM while 66% of pharmacies had ‘good practice’. However, the proportion of CPs with poor PWM practice was significant (34%). Knowledge of PWM was associated with manager qualification while practice was associated with both access to infrastructure and knowledge of PWM. The situation of PWM was therefore generally good but there was room for improvement. It was recommended that the Pharmacy and Poisons enhances law enforcement to eliminate unqualified practitioners. Enlightenment of CP managers on PWM through continuous medical education (CME) was also recommended.