Clandestine diplomacy and Kenya’s foreign policy
Intelligence as a term can have at least three general meanings. It can be a process, by which governments request, collect, analyze and disseminate certain types of required information, and the rubric by which covert operations are planned and executed. The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between clandestine diplomacy and Kenya‘s foreign policy. This study applied Realism Theory in evaluating the complex relationship between clandestine diplomacy and Kenya‘s foreign policy - which assumes that the character of foreign policy can only be ascertained through the examination of the political acts performed, as a result realism seems to seek security and order. This study aims to strengthen National Security Advisory Council and other key policy makers to develop stronger policies that are driven by intelligence in Kenya. In addition this study aims to contribute to action oriented strategies by the Government and particularly key actors in Kenya‘s Foreign Policy. The study utilized both qualitative and quantitative research approaches within a stage of the study or across two of the stages of the research process. The collected data was sorted and analyzed using document analysis and thematic analysis techniques, based on the emerging issues that were under investigation. The results (outcomes) obtained were presented in form of frequency tables, histograms and narratives, so as to give graphical representations. The study found that a country's foreign policy, is a set of goals outlining how the country will interact with other countries economically, politically, socially and militarily, and to a lesser extent, how the country will interact with non-state actors. Therefore intelligence was found to be used for public diplomacy when it is publicly presented to support a policy decision. Public diplomacy is combined with intelligence when the government seeks to harness the political power of an intelligence assessment to justify some policy or action to the public. Diplomacy and foreign policy are central features of international politics. Subsequently the study found that most participants were referring to National Intelligence Service (NIS) in their definition of the Kenyan context of intelligence, since the NIS is both the main national domestic and foreign intelligence agency of Kenya. The study revealed that since independence, Kenya has had no written foreign policy until President Uhuru Kenyatta launched one on 20th January, 2015. The study concludes that inattention to the role and position of intelligence is considered one of the main reasons for faulty understanding of policymaking trends in Kenya‘s foreign policy apparatus. The study recommends that parliament play an active role in foreign affairs in a systematic manner, it is necessary to activate the Standing Committees on Foreign Affairs of the two Houses. The study further recommends that important issues and projects relating to the foreign economic relations should be handled by specific departments as with each key national concern such as security, labour and foreign investments.