Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and it’s associated factors among hiv positive pregnant women in Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kisumu, Kenya
Introduction: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are among the leading causes of infectious disease deaths worldwide. The two viruses are highly endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Pregnant women who are co-infected with HBV and HIV are highly viremic for HBV and may be at a high risk of transmitting HBV to their infants. The prevalence of HIV in pregnant women aged 15-49 years in Kenya is 5.6%. Nyanza region of Kenya has the highest prevalence of HIV at about 15.1% compared to other regions in Kenya. Adult prevalence (15-64 years) in 2013 was 23.7% for males and 27.4% for females in Homabay County, 17.8% and 20.6% respectively in Kisumu and 21.8% and 25.3% respectively in Siaya Counties. With these statistics it is clear that more females than males in the same age group are infected with HIV in the region. Therefore, females in the same age bracket including pregnant women could be co-infected with HBV more than males. This study sought to establish seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and its associated factors among HIV positive pregnant women in Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital (JOOTRH) in Kisumu. Approval for conducting the study was obtained from KNH/UoN-ERC and JOOTRH‟s hospital administration. Study Design: The study utilized a descriptive cross sectional design that sought to establish seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and its associated factors among HIV positive pregnant women in JOOTRH. Study Population: The study population was composed of pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS aged between 15-49 years. Sampling Procedure: Purposive sampling (homogenous) was use in this study. Potential study participants who met the inclusion criteria were purposively sampled. xv Data Collection: Data was collected for a period of one month using structured questionnaires to identify the demographic characteristics and risk factors to HBV infection in the study participants. Determination of HBsAg status was done through laboratory screening of blood serum using Onsite Rapid Test kit manufactured by CTK Biotec, Inc USA. HIV status was ascertained using the antenatal record booklet issued to all pregnant women during their first visit to the ANC. Data Analysis Procedures: Filled questionnaires were checked for completeness and data entry commenced. Accuracy of entry was ascertained. Data was summarized in percentages and measures of central tendency. Analysis was done using chi-squire tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results were presented in tables, graphs, charts and text narratives. Findings: Seroprevalence of HBsAg was 1% among study participants. Social demographic factors (age, marital status, level of education, religion and occupation) were found not statistically significant with HBV/HIV co-infection with p>0.05. Similarly, there was no statistical correlation between presumed risk factors to HBV/HIV co-infection and HBsAg status as follows. (Blood transfusion p=0.753, body tattooing p=0.859, body piercing for medicinal purpose p=0.751, circumcision p=0.901 and dental procedure p=0.673 at 95% confidence interval. Conclusion: Findings of this study revealed a low seroprevalence rate of HBsAg of only 1% among study participants. However this finding does not necessarily reflect the real picture of co-infection in the entire region. Based on the current statistics of HIV/AIDS in Nyanza region, the rate of HBV/HIV co-infection could be different. xvi Recommendations: More attention should be focused on screening for HBsAg among HIV cases to identify demographics that show higher prevalence and to make informed decision on routine screening.
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