Effects Of Communal And Individual Land Tenure Systems On Land Use And Food Security In Kajiado District, Kenya
The East African governments have initiated land reform programmes with the objective of creating individualisation of land rights where rules of access, use and transfer are reformulated in order to adapt to rising population densities, land scarcity and agricultural commercialisation. This study assessed the effects of land tenure on land use and food security in Loitokitok Division, Kajiado District, Kenya. Purposive sampling was carried out by grouping locations within Loitokitok Division into two: those practising transhumance and the ones practising agropastoralism. Transhumance refers to seasonal movement with livestock for pastures and water while leaving the bulk of the households in permanent settlements. Agropastoralism refers to mixed farming in permanent settlements but sometimes includes transhumance. One location was randomly selected from each of the groupings and systematic sampling was carried out. Samples of 35 transhumant and agropastoral households respectively were then selected for the administration of a questionnaire. Also, village elders, chiefs and extension officers were interviewed, and more data were collected from annual reports and previous research studies. Data were analysed using both descriptives and regressions. Stratification of households showed that land tenure had influence on pastoral household size, herd size, milk yield, income from milk, total income, employment and remittance. In addition, agropastoral households were more food secure with a food poverty incidence of 0.2 while that of transhumant households was 0.6. The linear regression model showed that household size, diversification, total income, gender and land tenure had influence on both transhumant and agropastoral household food security at 5 per cent level of significance. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that the government and other stakeholders create awareness on issues of land tenure by gradually introducing the concept of individualisation of land rights in pastoral areas. Also, for improved income in these areas, there is need to increase the livelihood sources through micro industries such as milk processing plants, and hides and skins. This will provide job < IX opportunities and ready markets for their products. Further, family planning programmes should be provided to ensure household dependency ratio is reduced.
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