Kenya’s International Trade Policy Formulation And Negotiations
temational trade policy consists of bilateral and multilateral arrangements between countries d dictates the terms of commerce between them. These trade policies and relations vary in ope and content but generally depend on the structure of the economy of a particular country, developing countries, trade policy-making is shaped by the interaction of international and >mestic factors - economic and political. At the international level, the processes of obalization play a major role in influencing and shaping subsequent trade policies. At the imestic level, policy-making is intimately linked with the nature of the public-private lationship as well as the autonomy of state agencies and their institutional strength and ipacity. Trade policies and their coherency clearly have a bearing on the overall trade strategy irsued and consequently on the economic gains from trade. Kenya’s trade policy development has evolved through the following distinct policy ientations: import Substitution Policies (1960s -80s); Trade Liberalization through Structural djustment Policies (SAPs) (1980s) and Export Oriented Policies (1990s). Presently Kenya’s rade regime is guided by market-driven principles of liberalization under the World Trade •rganization (WTO) and the increased efforts in the regional economic integration that has jsulted in the establishment of the East African Community (EAC), Common Market for astern and Southern Africa (COMESA.) This study reflects on Kenya’s international trade experiences and examines the istitutional arrangements and interaction of its actors in the trade policy formulation and egotiations processes. It also identifies and contributes to a better understanding of the factors lat constrain effective formulation, negotiation, monitoring and evaluation of the country’s itemational trade policy.