The Diplomacy Of Democratization:Kenya’s Negotiations With Brettonwood Institutions 1989 - 2002
Sub-Saharan Africa has at least since 2nd World War; been highly integrated into the world economy. On the face of it, this integration should have lead to a higher sustained growth. It however has not but instead African Populations have continued to dwell in abject poverty. Debt and aid dependence have also exposed every African country, including Kenya to the multi-lateral lending programmers of the IMF and WB. The lending programmers focused on a standard set of macro-economic issues; public service reforms which included reduction in Public expenditure, the wage bill, liberalization of trade, domestic commodity prices and exchange rates, Privatization and other reforms. Policy reforms were first pursued by the BWI through SAPS. Since the early 1980s, bilateral and multilateral donor agencies jointly exerted pressure on recipient governments like Kenya to implement major changes in the way they managed their economies. BWI have sought to influence the government policy towards poverty reduction and democratization. Through the SAPs programmers, BWI often sought ownership of these programmers by government. The way to do this is often through diplomacy which is at the core of the business of IR. Diplomacy is the exercise by governments of power in the international component of national life. It includes management of IR through negotiation. This study examines the diplomatic process between Kenya and BWI in the period 1989 - 2002. It looks into how this process was influenced by the inter - play of both international and domestic politics; the negotiations that took place and its impact on the democratization process in Kenya. The study in conclusion, gives its own findings on whether democratization was part of the diplomatic process.