Factors affecting the implementation of universal primary education: a case study in Garissa District, 2003-2011
Egueh, Salah M
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The right of human being to education was first realized and recognized during the Universal declaration of human rights in 1948. Many international movements towards the increase and place the entire world's children in schools were made and many meetings of this issue were organized and held in many countries around the world. The last one was the millennium development goals declaration in 2000. The entire world agreed that all the school going-age children around the world should finish free primary education by 2015 around the world. As part of this agreement, Kenya government launched FPE in 2003. The announcement of FPE in Kenya resulted high enrollment rate in schools. Many challenges have been encountered like shortage of schools, classrooms, teachers, learning materials and many other things. As a part of Kenya, many other challenges have been noticed in North Eastern Province like cultural factors, environmental factors and many other factors. The study undertook to investigate the factors affecting the implementation of UPE in Garissa District. The objectives of the study were to provide an overview of the current status of UPE in Garissa District, to examine the factors hindering the implementation of UPE in Garissa District and to explore the role of and the relationship between culture and religion within the context of the implementation ofUPE in Garissa District. In the literature review, the history of UPE at the global, continental, country and region level was covered. The global challenges facing UPE and factors affecting its implementation in North Eastern Province was widely discussed. The study used human capital theory and capital theory of school effectiveness and improvement to undertake this research. The study used survey research to collect quantitative and qualitative data from the respondents. The total targeted population of the study was 90 consisting of head teachers, teachers, pupils, out of school children, parents, district education officers, district officer and education sponsors. The study employed stratified random sampling and purposive sampling to select schools and respondents. Self administrative questionnaires were used as an instrument for collecting data from head teachers, teachers, pupils, out of school children and parents. An interview guideline was used to the key informant of the study. Data analyzes was done using descriptive statistics. Data was analyzed and presented as frequencies and percentages and also as bar graphs, charts and pie charts. The study found the following things to be factors affecting the implementation of UPE in Garissa District. Lack of finance in families, lack of support from families due to the high illiterate rate, early marriage of girls in exchange of money, drug abuse among the majority of the communities in Garissa like chewing the miraa, inadequate facilities of schools, nomadic life style of the community, harsh climate conditions like constant drought and hot weather, poor infrastructure and lack of electricity, cultural values like female genital mutilation and boys preference in education than girls, high level of illiteracy among the parents of the district, farness of schools from the location of communities, lack of boarding primary schools in rural areas and many other things.