Income generating activities and their influence on academic performance in public secondary schools in Tigania East District, Kenya
Lichoro, Peter K
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Many countries in the world, Kenya inclusive have embraced the notion of basic education to include secondary schooling. On this basis the government of Kenya has introduced strategies aimed at improving access to secondary education, such as Free Day Secondary Education, opening of more secondary schools and addition of more streams to existing schools among others. However, in view of the diminishing resources and the growing competition for resource allocation among various sectors of the economy, the trend world over has been to reduce publics spending on education so as to release more of the scarce resources to other demanding sectors of the economy such as health and infrastructure (Coombs, 1983). Consequently there is increasing pressure on parents and communities to increase their financial support in order to place their children in secondary schools. Due to growing poverty levels among parents the amounts due to schools in form of schools fees are far way below what the schools require to run their programs effectively. This results to inadequate provision of learning resources in secondary schools. Njeru & Orodho (2003), World Bank (1995). The final effect of under provision of resources is a lowering of academic performance in national examinations. This study sought to investigate the influence of income generating activities on academic performance in Tigania East district. The study was guided by three specific objectives, namely; to examine the type of income generating activities engaged in by public secondary schools in Tigania East District, to establish the extent to which IGAS influence academic performance in public secondary schools in Tigania East District, to investigate the challenges faced by managers of public secondary schools in initiating and managing IGAS and their effect on academic performance in Tigania East District. The following research questions were formulated to guide the gathering of information for the study. What income generating activities are engaged in by public secondary schools in Tigania East District? What are the effects of income generating activities on academic performance in public secondary schools in Tigania East District? What challenges. Review of related literature indicate that IGAS have been used to raise supplementary funds for schools in different countries of the world as well as in Kenya. However, since no other study has been done in Tigania East District, this study sought to fill this gap. Descriptive survey design was adopted in the study where data was collected from the principals. BOG chairpersons, teachers and students. The study targeted 27 principals, 27 BOG chairpersons, 72 teachers and 340 students. The students were selected from among form 3 and four students. The total respondents were 460. Questionnaires and observations check list were used to collect data from respondents. The data was analyzed using SPSS programme and presented using tables, frequency tables, and charts. The study established a gender disparity among the principals, BOG chairpersons and teachers in favour of men. Majority of principals were aged between (68.2%) and 45 years while most of teachers were aged between 29 to 39 years. The findings indicated that most principals were holder of bachelors of education degree while only half of BOG chairpersons had diploma and degree level of education. The study r~vealed that all the principals had undergone some in-service training in resource management. The main source of school funds was fees and funds from FDSE although management of IGAS was still cited as a major challenge. Staffing topped the list of the most inadequate resource followed by physical infrastructure. This clearly showed the need for schools to generate additional funds through IGAs so as to enhance academic performance. The study showed that most IGAs were related to farming while few were based on hire of school facilities. The study established that income generating activities played an insignificant role in contributing to school resources and academic performance, but noted that there was great potential to turn IGAS into a reliable source of additional funding for public secondary schools. Most income generating activities are farming related while capital shortage and lack of managerial capacity were the main challenges faced. The study made the following recommendations to schools and ministry of education. That school managers engage relevant government officers within the district to help them identify the most viable income generating projects. The schools need to innovate and adopt appropriate technology to mitigate the challenges faced. Capacity building for school managers should be carried out in conjunction with the Ministry of Education. The study offered suggestion for further study on the perception of various stakeholders on income generating activities in public secondary schools, the role of income generating activities in improving academic performance in public secondary schools in other districts and a study on how involvement of students in income generating activities in public schools may affect their academic performance.