Influence of Integration of Information Communication Technology on Teaching and Learning Geography in Public Secondary Schools in Mwala Subcounty, Kenya
We are living in the digital age and hardly any aspect of human endeavour can be effectively carried on without Information communication technologies (ICTs) including education. ICTs are now at the center of education reform in line with the technological development of the 21st century. ICT-supported education can promote the acquisition of the knowledge and skills that will empower students for lifelong learning. Although schools have had computers for almost two decades, ways to use them effectively have evolved slowly and patchily. Technological revolution in schools has been beset by theoretical inadequacies that have kept educational technology at the margins of the established educational system. This creates a digital divide between the developed countries and the developing countries in relation to integration of ICTs in teaching and learning geography. The study was done in secondary schools in Mwala Sub- County; to assess the ICT facilities and infrastructure; to determine the teacher’s ICT knowledge and skills in application of ICT; to establish how the schools get the ICT technical support in and to establish the school administrative practice that influences the use of ICT in teaching and learning geography in secondary schools. Non-experimental descriptive survey design was used to establish the factors that influence the integration and the use of ICTs in teaching and learning geography in secondary schools in Mwala Sub- County. There are 75 secondary schools that made up the target population. A sample of twelve schools which- 30% of the total population was used in the study. Stratified random was used to allow full participation of the schools. There are 463 teachers in secondary schools that make up the target population. Four teachers were randomly sampled in each sample school to fill the questionnaire and twenty three principals were interviewed to represent each category of schools. Questionnaires, observation schedule and interview enabled the researcher collect data. Piloting was done in two schools to test the reliability and validity of the research instruments. The data collected was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics was used to present the results of the study and the general trends; this involved tabulating, graphing and describing data. This was followed by a discussion of the finding, drawing conclusions and giving recommendations based on the finding in the study. The study finding revealed that inadequate ICT infrastructure, limited ICT skills and training, limited access to technical support, lack of ICT policies in school and budget constraints hinder the integration of ICT in teaching and learning geography in secondary schools. The researcher recommends that the school administration familiarize themselves with the national ICT policy so that they can develop school ICT policies of how to efficiently integrate ICTs in teaching and learning geography. The government should also intensify ICT funding in schools to help subsidize the high ICT costs and increase the number of computers in schools. Teacher training programmes should factor in ICT units to enhance ICT skills in teaching and learning geography.
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