Factors influencing effective implementation of multilateral environmental agreements in Kenya: a case of Nile basin initiative and lake Victoria basin commission
The UN Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio dejenairo in 2012 (RIO+20 ) had as one of it’s two main theme’s “Strengthening the institutional framework for sustainable development”. This theme called for reforms in institutions and procedures through which governments set and implement International Environmental Laws and Policies. Integration of environment and development called for coordination to achieve global partnership for sustainable development. The Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Water Coarses and International Lakes (Helsinki, Finland 1992), called upon riparian parties to cooperate on the basis of equality and reciprocity through Bilateral and Multilateral water agreements in order to develop harmonized policies, programmes, and strategies aimed at prevention, control and reduction of transboundary environmental impacts. This research study was on “Factors Influencing Effective Implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements in Kenya. A Case of Nile Basin Initiative and Lake Victoria Basin Commission” and the researcher aimed to investigate the challenges that hindered attainment of the objectives and the goals of Multilateral Environmental Agreements in Kenya. The objectives of the study were to establish the influence of levels of compliance, determine the influence of domestication of the requirements, assess the influence of Monitoring and Evaluation and examine the influence of Operational Efficiency on the effective implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements in Kenya. In determining effectiveness of implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements, it was important to review them by the regimes established to implement them. A regime is an implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and decision making procedures used in implementing an agreement. The regime/target population were staff at Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, National Environment Management Authority, Lake Victoria Basin Commission and Nile Basin Initiative. This regime was viewed as a system. A system is an arrangement of and relations between the parts which connects them into a whole. The study used descriptive survey design, where the researcher administered research instruments to the sample population and used descriptive and inferential statistics to establish the significant correlations between the variables that were under investigation. The study focused on interaction with the established organizational system and the stakeholders involved. This was an appropriate research design for evaluating the effectiveness of the strategies for implementing developement programmes as it used both qualitative and quantitative data to identify, analyze and interpret conditions as they existed in relation to the set organizational guidelines. On a five point Likert measurement scale, levels of compliance recorded an overall Mean Score of 3.69 with Standard Deviation of 0.834, Extent of domestication of requirements Mean Score was 3.399 with Standard Deviation of 0.98, Monitoring and Evaluation Mean Score was 2.707 with Standard Deviation of 0.862 and on Operational Efficiency the Mean Scores was 3.152 with Standard Deviation of 0.91. This results showed high levels of compliance but lower levels of domestication of requirements, Operational Efficiency and use of Monitoring and Evaluation in their implementation. The study recommended that the treaty making and ratification Act of 2012 be revitalized and be made fully operational and provisions of the act implemented to the letter. The gaps established in this study when fully addressed will promote growth and efficiency of the established institutions and procedures. With full compliance, full domestication of requirements, coupled with regular Monitoring and Evaluation and enhanced Operational Efficiency in implementation of these Agreements, it was found that the country would reap maximum benefits from these agreements. The benefits included protection of public health and environment, participatory decision making, networking, technology transfer and facilitating changes in domestic environmental laws.