Factors Influencing Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching and Learning: the Case of Selected Secondary Schools in Lamu West Sub-county, Kenya
New technologies have changed the nature in which things are done at education systems in the world today. This study investigated factors influencing the use of ICT in teaching and learning in our secondary schools in Kenya. The objectives of the survey were to determine the impact of ICT infrastructure, Subject Contents availability, level of ICT training and attitude of teachers on ICT as a factor affecting integration of ICT in the processes of teaching and learning in secondary schools in Lamu west Sub County. The target population was 5249 respondents from 18 high schools in Lamu West who consist of 18 school principals, 190 teachers and 5041 students in Lamu West. The study utilized primary data .Three sets of questionnaires were used to collect data from three levels of key education stake holders. These are teachers, head teachers, and students. Data analysis and presentation was done using SPSS. About half of the schools visited maintained the ICT equipment well where else about a quarter did not show any concern about the ICT equipment. Over 80% of the schools underutilized the ICT facility while 20% felt that ICT services were maximally used. All the school respondents felt that there were small computers, lack of internal connectivity and irregular power supply. From the questionnaires and interviews conducted it came out apparently that lack of finances to train the teachers on ICT programmes and lack of enough time due to tight work and study schedules affected integration of teaching and learning to a great extent. The study revealed that 67% of the teacher‟s respondents had fear of technology while 33% didn‟t. The researcher asked the respondents if the researched schools had available email addresses and the findings of the study showed that 100% of the schools investigated had them. On the maintenance of the ICT equipment, the results of the survey reviewed that about half of all the schools with ICT equipment was well maintained whereas 20% of the schools did not show concern for the welfare of the equipment. According to the outcomes of the research, the researcher found out that 65% of the respondents who were supposed to be the key players in implementing use of ICT in teaching and learning had not received any form of ICT training. Only a meager 35% had received ICT training. This shows that for ICT integration to be effective, this one bit has to be dwelt with by focusing more on growing the skills of those who are involved in implementing it that is, the teachers and the students. The findings of this study, therefore, show that lack of proper mechanisms of equipping the teachers with skills to handle ICT has contributed to the state of ICT integration in our classrooms. The study, therefore, recommends that educators and students should be thoroughly trained on how to use ICT equipments to avoid guess work or recklessness. The policy makers should use the findings of this study to formulate teacher training programmes in teachers training colleges and during in-service education and trainings (INSET). Finally, the government should offer standard measure across all schools on the requirements for the set up of ICT equipment along with the training, contents to be used.
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