Factors Influencing Integration Of Information And Communication Technology In Learning And Teaching In Public Secondary Schools: A Case Of Tigania West Sub County, Meru County, Kenya.
This study was aimed at examining factors influencing ICT integration in teaching and learning in public secondary schools in Tigania west Sub County. The variables of the study were availability of ICT infrastructure, technical support and teacher competence in ICT. The study used descriptive survey research design since the researcher was interested in finding out the characteristics of the population as it was. The target population was all the public secondary schools in Tigania West Sub County, Meru County. In that study the target population was 14,444 which included 44 head teachers, 400 teachers and 14000 students. Ten percent was used as the determinant of the sample size. In that case the sample size was four head teachers, 40 teachers and 1,400 students. The number of student was still large. According to Kathuri and Pals, (1993) a sample size of 100 is acceptable as long as none of the sub groups in the sample is less than 20. The latter method of determining the sample size was adopted as far as students are concerned. Consequently, 100 students were the students’ sample size thus making the whole sample to be 144 (4 head teachers, 40 teachers and 100 students). The methods of data collection were questionnaires for teachers and students. Interview guide was also used with principals. Observation was also used to check physical presence of ICT facilities. The computer programme, SPSS version 17 was used to enhance efficiency in the quantitative data analysis. Results of this data analysis were presented using frequency distribution tables. Qualitative data was analyzed qualitatively using content analysis of meanings and implications emanating from respondents’ information. The results were then reported in descriptive narratives. Regression analysis was done to determine the influence of the dependent variables on the independent variable. The three variables: availability of ICT infrastructure, teacher competence, and technical assistance were found to significantly influence integration of ICT in teaching and learning in the sampled schools.The study concluded that effective integration of technology into classroom practices poses a challenge to teachers. The factors that influenced integration of ICT were teacher competencies in ICT, institutional factors related to ICT infrastructure and technological factors. Teachers’ training, knowledge and skills in ICT influence their use of ICT in teaching and learning. In relation to ICT infrastructure, absence of ICT infrastructure, old or poorly maintained hardware, lack of suitable educational software; limited access to ICT ,lack of or unreliable internet connectivity were found to be hindering integration of ICT. In regard to technical support, this study established that most schools had no computer technicians. The study recommended that schools should develop strategies to identify strengths and weakness of various technological resources with a view to adopting ICT in the process of teaching and learning. The schools should source for partners to finance the acquisition of more ICT infrastructure and lessen the workload of teachers so as to enable them find time to learn and integrate ICT. The study further recommended schools to provide teachers with regular trainings and seminars on how to adopt ICT in the teaching and learning process, as well as adopt policies that guide structured integration of ICT in the process of teaching and learning.
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