A comparative study of resilience to flood disasters: a case of Kano in Kisumu county and Budalangi in Busia county
This study discusses resilience to flood disaster in sub-locations in Kano: Ayweyo, Magina, Kochogo Central, Kochogo South, Kakola Ombaka, Kabonyo, Ahero Irrigation scheme and Kore and in sub-locations in Budalangi: Mudembi, Rwambwa, Budalangi, Siginga, Mundere, Magombe West, Rukala, Lugale and Mabinju. The two study areas have in the recent past experienced frequent flooding which negatively impact on main livelihood activities, which in this case is agriculture. The main objective of this research was to assess factors affecting flood resilience in Kano and Budalangi floodplains. To accomplish this, the specific objectives of the study were: To establish factors that contribute to communities’ states of vulnerability to floods; to identify coping mechanisms employed by the communities; to analyze community managed disaster risk reduction systems in place and finally to identify gaps that exist between the phases of preparedness and mitigation on one hand, response and recovery on the other. The sampling frame comprised of household population in Kano and Budalangi. Using a sample size of 152 and 154 households in Kano and Budalangi, stratified sampling was used to select representative samples with respect to each population size in each sub-location then simple random sampling was used to select households. The study used interview schedules, focused group discussions, key informant interview guides and direct observation. The study established that socio-economic factors such as gender, age, marital status, size of household, level of education, length of residency, sources of income and level of income contributed to states of vulnerability to flood disasters. The study revealed that factors such as type of shelter, acreage of land owned, number of health facilities, water supply and number of boreholes, electricity supply, communication and transport network in the study areas increased communities’ vulnerability to flood disaster. The study revealed that communities in the two study areas employed similar coping strategies, which were grouped into four categories: Economic, technological, social and cultural coping strategies. The study established that economic coping strategies employed were erosive in nature as they have negative long-term effects on households’ livelihood sustainability and that social and cultural coping strategies were most effective. An analysis of Community Managed Disaster Risk Reduction system in the two study areas revealed that both communities actively participated in activities that reduced flood risks.The study also revealed that lack of financial and human resources, lack of advance warning inadequate data, lack of implementation of policies, short term disaster response were among gaps that existed in the phases of flood disaster management in Kano and Budalangi. The findings of the study demonstrate that there is need for a comprehensive flood management policy and implementation of the disaster management policy on whole. The study makes a contribution to vulnerability and human adjustment theories, which state that households and communities are not only vulnerable to flooding due to, socio-economic, political and environmental factors but also due to the choices they make.
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