Expression analysis by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction of genes for ssociation with resistance to hiv-1 infection in highly exposed uninfected commercial ex workers in the pumwani sex worker cohort
Altered susceptibility to HIV-1 infection has been observed in multiple cohort studies especially in highly exposed commercial sex workers. Host genetic factors have a major impact on the pathology of infectious diseases and in humans, including HIV-1 infection. It is necessary to determine if genetic factors also contribute to the development of protective responses and escape from infection in HIV-1 exposed uninfected individuals. The search for genetic host factors that might affect the susceptibility of infection and subsequent clinical course of HIV infection is the basis of this study. This study aimed at determining the differences in expression levels of previouslyidentified differentially expressed genes of the glycolysis/pentose phosphate/insulin signaling pathways in HIV-1 resistant commercial sex workers, after a preliminary cDNA microarray assay was conducted in the Pumwani Sex Workers cohort. Gene expression levels of HIV-1 resistant, uninfected HIV-1 susceptible and HIV-1 infected women were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Data analysis was performed by the GraphPad Prism Software. The genes GAPDH and G6PD were found to be significantly down-regulated in HIV-1 resistant women (p=0.0131; p=0.0298 respectively) as compared to the insignificant level changes in uninfected HIV-1 susceptible women (p=0.347; p=0.5226 respectively) and the HIV-1 infected women (p=0.5824; p=0.9533 respectively). Overall, the levels of all the 9 genes studied were down-regulated in HIV-1 resistant women although statistical difference was seen in 2 genes only.