Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol
Okaru, Alex O.
Abuga, Kennedy O.
Kibwage, Isaac O
Lachenmeier, Dirk W.
MetadataShow full item record
Samples of unrecorded opaque beers (n = 58; 40 based on maize, 5 on sorghum and 13 on other plants) and recorded wines (n = 8) in Kenya were screened for aflatoxins using a rapid ELISA technique followed by confirmation using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Six of the maize beers were obtained from Kibera slums in Nairobi County. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in six unrecorded beers (10%), but in none of the recorded wines. Remarkably, three of the aflatoxin positive samples were from the Kibera slums. The mean concentration of aflatoxins in the positive samples was 3.5 μg/L (range 1.8–6.8 μg/L), corresponding for an average consumption of 500 mL (1 standard drink) to a margin of exposure (MOE) of 36 (range: 15–58), which is considered as ‘risk’. On the other hand, the alcoholic strength of the aflatoxin positive samples had a mean of 4.3% vol (range 3.5–4.8%) corresponding to a MOE of 2.5 (range of 2.2–3.0) for the equivalent consumption volume. While aflatoxins pose a risk to the consumer, this risk is about 10 times lower than the risk of ethanol. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives sets no acceptable daily intake for aflatoxins since they are genotoxic carcinogens and instead recommends for the reduction of aflatoxin dietary exposure as an important public health goal, particularly in populations who consume high levels of any potentially aflatoxins-contaminated food. Nevertheless, ethanol still posed a considerably higher risk in the unrecorded beers examined. However, consumers should be informed about aflatoxins, as these are an involuntary and unknown risk to them. In addition, producers should be educated about measures to reduce aflatoxins in alcoholic beverages.
The following license files are associated with this item:
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Influence of dietary aflatoxin contamination on aflatoxin levels in breast milk among lactating mothers in Kikumbulyu location, Kibwezi district of Makueni county Otieno, Issac O. (University of Nairobi, 2014)
Wakhisi, Johnston (1989)One source of human exposure to aflatoxins is by ingestion of aflatoxins carried over from feeds into milk and milk products such as cheese and powdered milk, where they appear mainly as aflatoxin M. We carried out a study ...
Aflatoxin exposure measured by urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine adduct and hepatitis B virus infection in areas with different liver cancer incidence in Kenya. Autrup, H; Seremet, T; Wakhisi, J; Wasunna, A (College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, 1987)Two major etiological agents, hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B1, are considered to be involved in the induction of liver cancer in Africa. In order to elucidate any synergistic effect of these two agents we conducted a ...