Natural Resources Management in the Promotion of Human Security: a Case Study of Merelani Mines in Manyara Region of Tanzania
Kakoko, Desiderius C.
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Generally, this study is about the role of natural resources management in the promotion of human security using Merelani Mines in Manyara Region, Tanzania as a case study. Consequently, it examined the theoretical underlying factors and ultimately analysed strengths and weaknesses of natural resources management structures (normative and institutional frameworks) in the promotion of human security in the area of study through numerous links. The study set out two hypotheses that weak institutional and normative frameworks on management of natural resources in Tanzania largely explain inability in the promotion of human security in the country. Secondly, weak information sharing structures on the management of natural resources form barriers to communities’ contribution in the promotion of human security in the country. The study argues that, these resources are natural assets and passive components of nature. Therefore, their effective utility demands comprehensive human management effort. The study analysed the strength and weaknesses of the management structures currently in place, and found out that weak structures are the result to insufficient promotion of human security in the country. Weak structures were examined to be the consequence of a variety of factors; the main ones being those related to lack of coordinated arrangements and lax implementation of the established structures. The study went further and examined the natural resources management roles in the promotion of human security through economic, food, health, political, environmental, social development and personal dimensions. Economically, assorted human impacts were found to be growing poverty, inadequacy support to education and weakly supported developmental projects. Food security and poor community health have also been identified to form part of the human insecurity. Politically, human security impacts are associated to persistent corruption, lack of transparency and accountability. Environmental insecurity is linked to the inadequacy human safety, environmental degradation, pollution and unsustainable human settlements to resources dependent communities. Personal insecurity includes inadequacy human protection, child labour, increase in crimes and gender issues. The study also found out that insufficient information sharing impact negatively on the natural resources dependent communities along all dimensions of human security. The study also identified information sharing gap between and among natural resources stakeholders. Lastly, this study has given policy recommendations on enhancing management of natural resources in the promotion human security in the country. The main areas of recommendations include improved coordination and linkage between and among the management structures and natural resources stakeholders in the country. The study recommended that harmonious effort by all stakeholders which are the government and its agencies, Private Companies, International Actors, NGOs and local communities. The study went further to recommend that, the instruments contained in the structures related to artisans and small miners in Merelani and related areas, need to be revisited so as to develop their full potential. Natural resources management structures should award the artisans and small-scale miners a deserving space in the whole exploitation process. Finally, the study recommended that coordinated legal reforms should be pursued in addressing the relations between the government and other stakeholders.
University of Nairobi
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